IKEA: An Operations Management Case Study

I was asked by Dr Roba Abbas to give a guest lecture to her Operations Management course. What an honour to be doing so! My slide-deck is below.

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Creating an Interplanetary Skin - Interplanetary Network of Things (INoT)

Problem: Will there be Netflix on Mars?

Interplanetary skin; Interplanetary Networks of Things; Interplanetary Internet; Extreme Environments; Deep Space Network; Network of Nodes; Network of Networks; Interplanetary Networking (IPN); Challenges; Connectivity; Building a Space Internet; Bundle Protocol; Transmission Delays; Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO); Talking by Laser; DTN Based Communications; User Applications

“The Future of Space travel demands better communications”

“Outer Space Forbids Constant Connectivity”

 https://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/a19469/there-will-be-netflix-on-mars/

https://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/a19469/there-will-be-netflix-on-mars/

Network of Nodes

Ever since the first American spacecraft went orbital in 1958, NASA's craft have communicated by radio with mission control on Earth using a group of large antennas known as the Deep Space Network. For a few lonely probes talking to the home planet, that worked fine. In the decades since then, as NASA and other space agencies have accumulated dozens of satellites, probes, and rovers on or around other planets and moons, the Deep Space Network has become increasingly noisy. It now negotiates complex scheduling protocols to communicate with more than 100 spacecraft.

Most rovers (both lunar and Martian) talk to the Deep Space Network in one of two ways: by sending data directly from the rover to Earth or by sending data from the rover to an orbiter, which then relays the data to Earth. Although the latter method is wildly more energy efficient because the orbiters have larger solar arrays and antennas, it can still be error-prone, slow, and expensive to maintain.

The future of space travel demands better communication. The pokey pace at which our current Martian spacecraft exchange data with Earth just isn't enough for future inhabitants who want to talk to their loved ones back home or spend a Saturday binge-watching Netflix. So NASA engineers have begun planning ways to build a better network. The idea is an interplanetary internet in which orbiters and satellites can talk to one another rather than solely relying on a direct link with the Deep Space Network, and scientific data can be transferred back to Earth with vastly improved efficiency and accuracy. In this way, space internet would also enable scientific missions that would be impossible with current communications tech.

https://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/a19469/there-will-be-netflix-on-mars/

The Tree of Mars

Venn Diagram: 3 sets, unions, intersections and complements

High-Level Mindmap

 Ultra High Level Network Plan with Communities of Interest

Ultra High Level Network Plan with Communities of Interest

 Numbers + Simplification

Numbers + Simplification

Exploratory Learning Session at ASU

 https://interplanetary.asu.edu/exploration-learning

https://interplanetary.asu.edu/exploration-learning

I went to a meeting hosted by the Interplanetary Initiative today and found myself volunteering to teach an Introduction in the area of Exploratory Learning.

Exploratory learning can be defined as an approach to teaching and learning that encourages learners to examine and investigate new material with the purpose of discovering relationships between existing background knowledge and unfamiliar content and concepts.

The direct link to the Interplanetary Initiative’s Exploratory Learning module is here.

Through exploration learning, learners should:

  • Recognize and be unafraid of unsolved problems,

  • Be curious about what is known and how we know it,

  • Be willing to work toward answers in steps over time,

  • Develop independence and initiative in working toward solutions,

  • Have patience with ambiguity,

  • Have patience with dead ends (“failures”) and thus build resilience,

  • Understand the difference between a problem they have not solved, and a problem no one has solved,

  • Practice listening and respecting the contributions of teammates and

  • Experience knowledge creation.

During exploration learning, learners should do one or more of:

  • Practice asking questions,

  • Learn how to improve their questions,

  • Solve problems that require multiple steps and may not have single answers,

  • Identify and tackle problems whose solution is not known to the team or instructor (knowledge creation),

  • Obtain and assess the quality of the content they use to reach answers,

  • Assess the quality of the answers they produce, and

  • Work in interdisciplinary groups where all voices contribute.

What is a Planetary Skin?

The launch of Planetary Skin by NASA and Cisco Inc., a new platform for measurement, reporting and verification is hoped to enable the unlocking of US$350 billion per year in 2010–2020 for mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

Planetary Skin is a global-monitoring system of environmental conditions intended to help effective decision making with data collected from various sources which includes space, airborne, maritime, terrestrial and people-based sensor networks. It is then analyzed, verified and reported over an open standards based Web 2.0 and 3.0 collaborative spaces.

Useful Links

Cisco and NASA R&D public that cuts across institutional, disciplinary, and national boundaries and create a space for flexible pooling of assets and ideas between stakeholder networks.

Planetary Skin Institute

From One Earth To One World

Alerts on the Planetary Skin

How NASA, Cisco, And A Tricked-Out Planetary Skin Could Make The World A Safer Place

Planetary Skin Institute is a bridge between organizations like the World Economic Forum, NASA, and the University of Minnesota. It takes in massive amounts of data from space-to-mud-to-ocean sensors. And it uses experts and big data analytics to help emerging market governments know things like where to build infrastructure and where droughts will hit.

Its latest project: Developing virtual weather stations using “exhaust” cell phone data. And helping the government of Brazil create a national monitoring and early warning system for natural disasters–a system few countries have, but all need.

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One notable example of these risk management and prevention tools: new virtual weather stations currently being tested by Planetary Skin Institute and their partners.

In a breakthrough in environmental sensing and a new way to use junk data, the team uses “exhaust data” from cell phone towers to predict weather conditions by monitoring the speed of radio waves as they travel through humid air. This allows sensing of local environmental conditions anywhere there are cell towers–places that rarely have weather monitoring right now because traditional weather stations are too costly or the locations are too remote. It sounds simple, but it is critically important. Tracking the weather allows data scientists to connect that with all sorts of other information and, most immediately, to predict things like landslides. And to do so for people who live in the areas nearest the towers–typically shantytowns where populations are at greatest risk.

The project in Brazil has been running successfully for two years. If it continues to work, it is a risk management approach and toolkit that Planetary Skin Institute is planning to bring to the rest of the world–the next step in their evolution.

Planetary skin institute ALERTS: automated land change evaluation, reporting and tracking system by J. D. Stanley of the Planetary Skin Institute, Proceeding COM.Geo '11 Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computing for Geospatial Research & Applications, Article No. 65, Washington, DC, USA — May 23 - 25, 2011.

Planetary Skin: A Global Platform for a New Era of Collaboration, Juan Carlos Castilla-Rubio and Simon Willis, 2009.

Complexity and uncertainty are hallmarks of the early 21st century, as recent developments in the global financial markets demonstrate all too vividly. Responses to the financial crisis have prominently featured demands for global coordination. Our economic woes, however, are dwarfed by the increasing threats of climate change and environmental degradation— and their attendant miseries, such as pandemics and poverty. Unprecedented global coordination and collaboration are the only ways to address these environmental dangers.

Actionable consensus on addressing climate change is now evident in public policy announcements from global leaders, and in the coalescing of private and public opinion that the world needs to address quickly and decisively the varied perils created by man-made climate change. At the World Economic Forum in 2009, public and private sector leaders outlined three basic requirements for mitigating and adapting to changing climate: (1) targets for countries that effectively put a price on carbon; (2) large-scale predictable and sustainable financing for mitigation and adaptation strategies, and, critically (3) the creation of a globally trusted mechanism for measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV).

While measurement is third on the list, it is the essential precondition to any creation of value, or to unlock financial flows. The simple axiom that “you can’t manage what you can’t measure” holds true—especially for the most complex challenges.

NASA-Cisco climate project to flash 'Planetary Skin'

NASA and Cisco Systems Inc. are developing "Planetary Skin" -- a marriage of satellites, land sensors and the Internet -- to capture, analyze and interpret global environmental data. Under terms of an agreement announced during a Capitol Hill climate summit today, NASA and Cisco (Nasdaq: CSCO) will develop the online collaborative platform to process data from satellite, airborne and sea- and land-based sensors around the globe.

The goal is to translate the data into information that governments and businesses can use to mitigate and adapt to climate change and manage energy and natural resources more effectively, NASA and Cisco officials explained in interviews.

"There are a lot of data out there, but we have to turn that into information," explained S. Pete Worden, director of NASA's Ames Research Center. "What we are trying to do is use Cisco's expertise in data handling, put our data in there and explain what's really going on in the rainforests."

Indeed, the partners' first project, "Rainforest Skin," will focus on integrating a comprehensive sensor network in rainforests around the world. The project will examine how to capture, analyze and present information about the changes in the level of carbon dioxide -- the main heat-trapping gas -- in the Amazon and other areas. Information will be posted on the project's Web site.

Other projects during the next 18 months will look at changes in land use and water, Worden noted.

"This will begin to give us a sense of, if we pass cap and trade, is it working," he added.

Now about the project's name: "There are many layers of skin, of information, and this will help us understand all of the interconnected data," explained Worden, whose agency provides continuous global observations using satellites and other spacecraft.

Juan Carlos Castilla-Rubio, who directs Cisco's climate change practice, said the information should help companies manage environmental and financial risks in a carbon-constrained world.

"It's providing the support platforms for people to make decisions because today we fly blind," added Castilla-Rubio, whose San Jose, Calif.-based company specializes in Internet Protocol networking.

The Center for Global Development has developed a Web site of its own, called Carma (Carbon Monitoring for Action), which tracks emissions from 50,000 power plants around the world. The Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit research organization is also developing a way to monitor emissions savings from forest conservation.

"These investments in information now are absolutely critical," said Nancy Birdsall, the center's president, who participated in today's summit with Cisco Chairman and CEO John Chambers. "We have to create that information and track it over time if we're going to have any kind of system at a global level that people in this country and other countries can trust."

"We'll have to have ... something akin to independent monitoring," she added.

Your Body and Your Brain “At Risk” – The Business of Recalling Biomedical Implants

 Source: http://www.notey.com/blogs/medical--AND--biotech

Source: http://www.notey.com/blogs/medical--AND--biotech

Consumer electronics are “wants” bought by people who have purchasing power. These might range from human aids like calculators and robot vacuum cleaners to entertainment-driven electronics like smart TVs and tablets, to personal assistants like smart watches and fitness trackers. While most do not consider biomedical implants like heart pacemakers and brain pacemakers to be “consumer electronics”, by definition they are “a good bought for personal rather than commercial use”. The only paradox in this instance is that this suite of biomedical implantables are really “needs” as opposed to “wants”. Patients have a choice on whether or not to adopt this emerging technology, but most say that opting in is the only real option to maintaining their quality of life and longer-term wellbeing.

In the general consumer market, taking back a faulty product simply requires an original proof of purchase so an item can be validated as still being under warranty. In the case of biomedical implantables, a recipient simply cannot take back an implant for repair if it malfunctions. Biomedical implantables are willingly embedded in the body of a consumer by a surgical team, and require special expertise for removal, replacement or maintenance (i.e. upgrade). The manufacturer, for example, cannot conduct the removal process, but a surgeon with the right equipment and human resource support (e.g. nurses) can. In 2010, one supplier of pacemakers, Medtronic Inc., had to pay $268 million to settle thousands of lawsuits that patients filed after a 2007 recall of a faulty heart defibrillator wire that caused at least 13 deaths. In other cases, battery packs have failed causing disruption to consumer implants, and more recently we have witnessed software code security vulnerabilities in heart pacemakers which have meant that recipients had to undergo a firmware upgrade in a doctor’s office, a procedure that takes up to 5 minutes and is non-invasive.

On the one hand, these pacemakers are life-sustaining and life-enhancing to their recipients, on the other hand they place voluntary human implantees at some level of risk. The various types of risks will be considered in this presentation as will the impact of “recalls” on consumer implantees.

This Medtronic YouTube Video is shown in the context of this educational presentation under "fair use" rights. Gary's story demonstrates the positive and life-changing impact a DBS can have on one's life if they are suffering from Parkinson's Disease.

Now read about another Gary here. Two part interview will appear shortly in IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine.

Warning: The contents of this video are disturbing.

Warning: The contents of this video are disturbing.

Citation: Katina Michael, May 18, 2018, "Your Body and Your Brain “At Risk” – The Business of Recalling Biomedical Implants", Innovations in Health Technology Panel at the Governance of Emerging Technologies and Sciences: Law, Policy and Ethics.

Brain Implant Electromagnetic Issues

Presentation delivered on Sunday April 15, 2018, 2.30pm.

Source: https://gizmodo.com/why-people-with-brain-implants-are-afraid-to-go-through-1796452196

Poster presentation at the 9th Annual International Conference on Ethics in Biology, Engineering, & Medicine in Miami, Florida.

Sunday April 15, 8:30am Breakfast and Registration Announcements/ Welcome

BIOENGINEERING ETHICS EDUCATION Session Chairs: Dr. Katina Michael & Dr. Subrata Saha

Mobile Alerts for People who Wander: Where RFID/NFC, Biometrics and GPS meet

Primary carers of people who wander have a substantial onus to keep their loved ones and clients safe. Though patterns of wandering differ between various stakeholder types in various contexts, the two main design points include:

  1. Ensuring an individual does not go beyond the perimeters of a home (in-building) or a facility (on-campus)
  2. Ensuring an individual who has wandered can be found quickly (usually traversing a public space).

Wandering about a public space is one of the freedoms people enjoy about being alive. Whether it is a brisk walk to the local park, a bus or train trip to the beach, or aeroplane travel to various parts of the world, we can all enjoy the world around us. Walking does not require any token, travel often requires a ticket such as a TravelPass, and flying a passport with an appropriate VISA. People who wander usually do so on foot or by public transport. This session tries to narrow in to the potential for using RFID/NFC, facial recognition, and GPS to trigger mobile alerts when someone has wandered outside a minimum bounded area.

Children with autism for example, have often escaped their homes, only to find themselves in danger, either from oncoming traffic or from deep waters. Those suffering from varying levels of dementia have found themselves on public transport or disoriented at the wheel. Quite often wanderers frequent paths they know well. Wanderers who are in urban centres can have a very different experience to those in regional or rural settings. Context awareness is paramount for a carer. Is there a lake nearby? Is their busy traffic outside the family home? Is the wanderer known to people in the local community like café owners or train station attendants?

Since the early 2000s, various kinds of technological solutions have attempted to help those in need in various markets. Though we are making major inroads into what we have termed hierarchical positioning systems, most systems seem to fall short and so we still have many reports of wanderers falling to their deaths, or drowning, or suffering some other plight. The anguish for carers is significant. There is no respite for them, and the responsibility takes a grave toll on individuals.

This session will explore how technologies could be utilized to monitor people in need within the family home or institutional facility (e.g. wearing RFID/NFC tags) and furthermore how once traversing a public space the wanderer can be located. A number of factors can impact findability: morphological conditions, the individual’s agreement to wear a device, how to respond to mobile alerts once a trigger has been executed.

Participants will learn about:

-          Individual wearer responses to wearable medic alert bracelets and tag technology

-          In-building and on-campus solutions offered by BLE and UWB

-          Advances in satellite-to-base chips (GPS sensors) used by the military

-          The role of visual analytics in near real-time analysis

-          Informed consent issues, duty of care, and getting privacy right

-          Patterns of analysis in human activity monitoring and what that can tell us

-          The importance of affordable solutions for primary carers who usually do not have a full time job while they are caring for loved ones who wander

-          Coordination with emergency services for assistance in finding a missing person

Presenter: Professor Katina Michael, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong

Collaborator: Dr Roba Abbas, honorary fellow, School of Computing and Information Technology, University of Wollongong

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 Source: Tee Chew and Katina Michael, 2005

Source: Tee Chew and Katina Michael, 2005

 Source: Tee Chew and Katina Michael, 2005

Source: Tee Chew and Katina Michael, 2005

 

Tragic stories involving wanderers

It's a devastating occurrence, but it's not rare.

About 20 times a month, a child with autism wanders off, according to national statistics tracked by the nonprofit Autism Speaks.

Two or three of those children die each month in the United States, the group’s numbers from 2017 show.

The most common cause of death will not surprise anyone who followed last weekend's disappearance of 4-year-old Chelsea Noel.

It's drowning. 

https://www.tcpalm.com/story/opinion/columnists/eve-samples/2017/12/07/children-autism-face-life-threatening-risks-wandering-eve-samples/928435001/

Of these children, 74 percent run or wander from their own home or from someone else’s home, 40 percent run or wander from stores and 29 percent run or wander from schools. Close calls with traffic injuries were reported for 65 percent of the missing children and close calls with drowning were reported for 24 percent of the missing children. Running and wandering in children and teens with autism takes an enormous toll on families and caregivers, Schumer said: 56 percent of parents reported running as one of the most stressful behaviors they have had to cope with as caregivers of a child with autism. And 50 percent of parents reported receiving little guidance on preventing or addressing this common behavior.
— Autism Wandering Awareness Alerts Response and Education Collaboration and the National Autism Association

"Autistic children aged 14 years and younger are 40 times more likely to die from injury than the general pediatric population," Li said. Specifically, drowning accounts for 46% of all injury deaths among children with autism, which translates to 160 times the chance of dying from drowning compared to other children.

"The risk of drowning in autistic children peaks at age 5 to 7 years," Li said.

He explained that children with the disorder often feel anxiety, and wandering, especially toward water, is one way they seek relief. With 100,000 children newly diagnosed with disorders each year in the US, he added, "the first concrete step parents an