My Research Programme (2002 - Now)

Digital Wearability Scenarios: Trialability on the Run

Introduction

What happens when experimental technologies are deployed into society by market leaders without much forethought of the consequences on everyday life? When state-based regulations are deliberately ignored by rapid innovation design practices, giving birth to unconventional and radical production, a whole series of impacts play out in real life. One such example is Google's Glass product: an optical head-mounted display unit that is effectively a wearable computer. In early 2013, Google reached out to U.S. citizens asking potential Glass users to send a Twitter message with the #IfIHadGlass hashtag to qualify for consideration and to pay US$1,500 for the product if numbered among the eligible for its early adoption. About 8,000 consumers in the United States allegedly were invited to purchase the Explorer edition of Glass. By April 2013, Google had opened up Glass to its “Innovation in the Open” (I/O) developer community, and by May 2014, they allowed purchases of the product from anywhere in the world.

The early adopters of the open beta product quickly became tech evangelists for the Google brand. As was expected, the touted benefits of Glass, by the self-professed “Glassholes,” were projected as mainstream benefits to society via YouTube and Hangout. Tech-savvy value-added service providers who stood to gain from the adoption and citizens who wished to be recognized as forward-thinking, entrepreneurial, and cool came to almost instantaneous fame. There were, however, only a few dissenting voices that were audible during the trialability phase of diffusion, with most people in society either not paying much attention to “yet another device launch” by Google or ignoring folk who were just geeks working on hip stuff. About the biggest thought people had when confronted by one of these “glasses” in reality was “What's that?” followed by “Are you recording me?” The media played an interesting role in at least highlighting some of the potential risks of the technology, but for the most part, Glass was depicted as a next-generation technology that was here now and that even Australia's own then-Prime Minister Julia Gillard had to try out. Yep, another whiz-bang product that most of us would not dare to live without.

With apparently no limits set, users of Glass have applied the device to diverse contexts, from the operating theater in hospitals to preschools in education and evidence gathering in policing. Yes, it is here, right now. Google claims no responsibility for how its product is applied by individual consumers, and why should they—they're a tech company, right? Caveat emptor! But from the global to the local, Glass has received some very mixed reactions from society at large.

Scenario-Planning Approach

This article focuses on the social-ethical implications of Glass-style devices in a campus setting. It uses secondary sources of evidence to inspire nine short scenarios that depict a plausible “day in the life” of a person possessing a body-worn video camera. A scenario is “an internally consistent view of what the future might turn out to be” [1]. One gleans the current state of technology to map the future trajectory [2, p. 402]. Scenarios allow us two distinct qualities as researchers: 1) an opportunity to anticipate possible and desirable changes to society by the introduction of a new technology known as proactivity and 2) an opportunity to prepare for action before a technology is introduced into the mainstream, known as preactivity [3, p. 8]. While change is inevitable as technology develops and is diffused into society, we should be able to assess possible strategic directions to better prepare for expected changes and, to an extent, unexpected changes. This article aims to raise awareness of the possible social, cultural, and ethical implications of body-worn video recorders. It purposefully focuses on signs of threats and opportunities that body-worn recording devices presently raise in a campus setting such as a university [1, p. 59]. A similar approach was used successfully in [4] with respect to location-based services in 2007.

In February 2013, Katina and M.G. Michael were invited to write an opinion piece about the ethics of wearable cameras for Communications of the ACM (CACM) [5]. Upon the article's acceptance in September of the same year, the CACM editor provided the option of submitting a short video to accompany the article online, to act as a summary of the issues addressed. Encouraged by the University of Wollongong's videographer, Adam Preston from Learning, Teaching and Curriculum, after some initial correspondence on prospective scenarios, it was jointly decided to simulate the Glass experience with a head-mounted GoPro camera [6] and to discuss on camera some of the themes presented in the article within a university campus setting (Figure 1). A few months prior, in June, Katina hosted the International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS13) with wearable pioneer Prof. Steve Mann [7]. Ethics approval for filming the three-day international symposium with a variety of wearable recorders was gained from the University of Wollongong's Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) for the University of Toronto-based event. Importantly, it must be emphasized that the scenarios themselves are fictitious in terms of the characters and continuity. They did not happen in the manner stated, but, like a tapestry, they have been woven together to tell a larger story. That story is titled: “Recording on the Run.” Each scenario can be read in isolation, but, when placed side by side with other scenarios, becomes a telling narrative of what might be with respect to societal implications if such recording devices proliferate.

Figure 1. A GoPro device clipped to an elastine headband ready to mount on a user. Photo courtesy of Katina Michael.

Figure 1. A GoPro device clipped to an elastine headband ready to mount on a user. Photo courtesy of Katina Michael.

Having hired the videographer for 2 h to do the filming for CACM, we preplanned a walkthrough on the University of Wollongong's campus (Figure 2). Deniz Gokyer (Figures 3 and 4) was approached to participate in the video to play the protagonist GoPro wearer, as he was engaged in a master's major project on wearables in the School of Information Systems and Technology. Lifelogging Web sites such as Gloggler.mobi that publish point-of-view (POV) video content direct from a mobile device were also used to support claims made in the scenarios. The key question pondered at the conclusion of the scenarios is, how do we deal with the ever-increasing complexity in the global innovation environment that continues to emerge around us with seemingly no boundaries whatsoever? The scenarios are deliberately not interpreted by the authors to allow for debate and discussion. The primary purpose of the article was to demonstrate that body-worn recording products can have some very significant expected and unexpected side effects, additionally conflicting with state laws and regulations and campus-based policies and guidelines.

Figure 2. (a) The making of a short video to discuss the ethical implications of wearable devices for CACM. (b) The simultaneous GoPro view emanating from the user's head-mounted device. Screenshots courtesy of Adam Preston.

Figure 2. (a) The making of a short video to discuss the ethical implications of wearable devices for CACM. (b) The simultaneous GoPro view emanating from the user's head-mounted device. Screenshots courtesy of Adam Preston.

Figure 3. Deniz Gokyer simulating an ATM withdrawal while wearing a GoPro. Photo courtesy of Adam Preston.

Figure 3. Deniz Gokyer simulating an ATM withdrawal while wearing a GoPro. Photo courtesy of Adam Preston.

Figure 4. The aftereffect of wearing a GoPro mounted on an elastic band for 2 h. Photo courtesy of Katina Michael.

Figure 4. The aftereffect of wearing a GoPro mounted on an elastic band for 2 h. Photo courtesy of Katina Michael.

Recording on the Run

Scenario 1: The Lecture

Anthony rushed into his morning lecture on structures some 10 min late. Everyone had their heads down taking copious notes and listening to their dedicated professor as he provided some guidance on how to prepare for the final examination, which was worth 50% of their total mark. Anthony was mad at himself for being late, but the bus driver had not accepted his AUD$20 note in lieu of the Opal Card now available. Prof. Markson turned to the board and began writing the practice equations wildly, knowing that he had so much to get through. Anthony made sure to keep his hands free of anything that would sidetrack him. Instead, he recorded the lecture with a GoPro on his head. Some of the girls giggled in the back row as he probably looked rather stupid, but the laughter soon subsided and everyone got back to work, copying down Markson's examples. At one stage, Markson turned to look at what the giggles were about, made startling eye contact with Anthony, and probably thought to himself: “What's that? Whatever it is, it's not going to help him pass—nothing but calculators are allowed in exam situations.”

Anthony caught sight of Sophie, who motioned for him to go to the back row, but by then, he thought it would probably be better recording from the very front and he would cause less disruption by just sitting there. Markson was a little behind the times when it came to innovation in teaching, but he was a brilliant lecturer and tutor. Anthony thought to himself, if anyone asks for the recording, he would make sure that it would be available to them. The other students took note of the device that was firmly strapped to his head with a band but were somewhat unphased. Anthony had always argued that recording with a GoPro is nothing more than recording with a mobile phone. He surfed a lot at Austinmer Beach, and he thought the video he took of himself on the board was just awesome, even though his girlfriend thought it was vain. It was like a motion selfie.

Scenario 2: The Restroom

It had been one long day, practically like any other, save for the fact that today Anthony had chosen to wear the GoPro on a head-mounted bandana to record his lectures. They were in the serious part of the session, and he wanted to make sure that he had every opportunity to pass. Anthony was so tired from pulling an all-nighter with assessment tasks that he didn't even realize that he had walked into the restroom toward the end of his morning lecture with the device switched on and recording everything in full view. Lucky for him, no one had been accidentally caught on film while in midstream. Instead, as he walked in, he was greeted by someone who was walking out and a second guy who avoided eye contact but likely noticed the camera on Anthony's head from the reflection in the mirror while washing his hands. The third one didn't even care but just kept on doing what he was doing, and the fourth locked his eyes to the camera with rage for a while. They didn't speak, but Anthony could sense what he thought—“what the heck?” Anthony was an attractive young man who sported tattoos and always tried to look different in some way. He hated conformity. Now that he had watched the video to extract the lecture material, he wondered why no one had stopped him to punch the living daylights out of him in the restroom. Anthony had thought people were getting used to the pervasiveness of cameras everywhere—not just in the street and in lecture theaters but also in restrooms and probably soon in their homes as well.

Scenario 3: The Corridor

By this time, Anthony was feeling rather hungry. In fact, he was so hungry that he was beginning to feel very weak. All of those late nights were beginning to catch up now. Sophie demanded that they go eat before the afternoon lecture. As they walked out of the main tower building, they bumped into an acquaintance from the previous session. Oxford, as he was known by his Aussie name, was always polite. The conversation went something like this. “Hello Oxford! How are you?” said Sophie. Oxford replied, “I'm fine, thank you. Good to see you guys!” Sophie quickly pointed to Anthony's head-mounted camera and said, “Oxford, can you believe how desperate Anthony has become? He's even recording his lectures with this thing now!” Oxford, who was surprised, remarked, “Oh yeah. I've never seen one of these before. Are you recording right now, Anthony?” “Yes, I am,” Anthony affirmed, “but to be honest, I completely forgot about it—I'm dreaming about food right now.” Anthony patted his tummy, which was by now making grumbling noises. “Want to come with us to the café near the gymnasium?” Anthony asked.

“He just filmed most of the structures lecture—I'm thinking like, this might be the coolest thing that might stick,” Sophie reflected, ignoring Anthony. “No kidding,” Oxford said, “You're recording me right now? I'm not exactly thrilled about this, but ‘hi,’ for what it's worth.” Oxford waved to the camera and smiled. Sophie interjected, “Oxford, it is not like he's making a movie of you, haha!” Sophie grabbed Oxford's arm to pull it toward her—the jab was signified to make it clear she was joking. But suddenly, things became serious instead of lighter. Oxford continued, “No, I'm not quite good in front of the camera…like I don't like pictures being taken of me or even recordings of my voice. It's probably the way I was raised back home.”

Anthony told Oxford not to worry because he was not looking at him, and so, therefore, nothing but his voice was really being recorded. Little did he realize that was breaking local New South Wales laws, or at least that was what he would find out later in the day when someone from security spotted him on campus. Sophie asked with curiosity, “Do you think someone should ask you if they want to record you on campus?” Oxford thought that was a no brainer—“Of course they should ask. You're wearing this thing on your head, and there's nothing telling people passing by whether you are watching them and recording them. C'mon Anthony, you're a smart guy, you should know this stuff; you're studying engineering, aren't you? We're supposed to be the ones that think of everything before it actually happens. You might as well be a walking CCTV camera.” There was dead silence among the friends. Then Anthony blurted out, “But I'm not watching you; you just happen to be in my field of view.”

Sophie began to consider the deeper implications while Anthony was getting flustered. He wanted to eat, and they were just beginning a philosophical conversation. “C'mon Oxford, come with us, we're starving…and we can talk more at lunch, even though we should be studying.” As they walked, Sophie continued: “It's not like this is the worst form of camera that could be watching. I saw this thing on the news a couple of weeks ago. The cameras are getting tinier; you cannot even see them. The company was called OzSpy, I think, and they're importing cheap stuff from Asia, but I don't think it's legal in every state. The cameras are now embedded in USBs, wristbands, pens, keyfobs, bags, and t-shirts. How do you know you're being recorded with that kind of stuff?” Oxford was beginning to feel uneasy. Anthony felt like taking off the contraption but left it on because he was just too lazy to put the thing back in its box and then back on again in less than 2 h. Oxford confessed again: “I feel uncomfortable around cameras, and it's not because I'm doing anything wrong.” They walked quietly for a few minutes and then got to the café. Sophie pointed to the wall as they queued. “Look up there. It's not like we're not always under surveillance. What's the difference if it is on a building wall versus on someone's head?”

Anthony wished they'd change the subject because it was starting to become a little boring to him. Oxford thoughtfully replied to Sophie, “Maybe it's your culture or something, but I even wave to CCTV cameras because it's only for security to see on campus. But if someone else is recording me, I don't know how he or she will use the footage against me. I don't like that at all. I think if you're recording me to show other people, then I don't think it's okay at all.” Sophie chuckled, “Hey, Oxford, this way Anthony will never forget you even when you have finished your degree and return to Thailand in ten years; when he is rich and famous, he'll remember the good old days.” The truth was that Oxford never wanted to return to Thailand; he liked the opportunities in Australia but added, “Okay, so you will remember me and my voice forever.”

By this time, Anthony was at the front of the queue. “Guys, can we forget about this now? I need to order. Okay, Oxford, I promise to delete it if that makes you feel better.” Oxford said, “No, Anthony, you don't understand me. I don't mind if you keep this for old times sake, but just don't put it on the Internet. I mean don't make it public, that's all. Guys, I just remembered I have to go and return some library books so I don't get a fine. It's been nice chatting. Sorry I cannot stay for lunch. Good luck in your finals—let's catch up and do something after exams.” “Sure thing,” Sophie said. “See ya.” As Oxford left and Anthony ordered food, she exclaimed, “Your hair is going to be great on the video!” Oxford replied, “I know my hair is always great, but this jacket I am wearing is pretty old.” Oxford continued from afar, “Anthony, remind me to wear something nicer next time. Bye now.” Sophie waved as Oxford ran into the distance.

Scenario 4: Ordering at the Cafe

Anthony ordered a cappuccino and his favorite chicken and avocado toastie. The manager, who was in his 50s, asked for Anthony's name to write on the cup. “That will be 10 note and waited for change. “And how are you today?” asked the manager. “I'm fine thanks.” “Yeah, good,” replied the manager, “Okay, see you later, and have a good one.” Anthony muttered, “I'll try.” Next it was Sophie's turn to order. “What's up with him?” asked the café manager. “What's that thing on his head? He looks like a goose.” Sophie cracked up laughing and struck up a conversation with the manager. She was known to be friendly to everyone.

Anthony went to the service area waiting for his cappuccino and toastie. For once, the line was not a mile long. The male attendant asked Anthony, “What's with the camera?” By then, Anthony had decided that he'd play along—sick of feeling like he had to defend himself, yet again. He wasn't holding a gun after all. What was the big deal? He replied, “What's with the camera, mate? Well, I'm recording you right now.” “Oh, okay, awesome,” said the male attendant. Anthony probed, “How do you feel about that?” The male attendant answered, “Well, I don't really like it man.” “Yeah, why not?” asked Anthony, trying to figure out what all the hoo-ha was about. There were CCTV cameras crawling all over campus, and many of them were now even embedded in light fixtures.

“Hey, Josie, Josie—how do you feel about being filmed?” exclaimed the male attendant to the female barista cheekily. “I don't really mind. I always wanted to be an actress when I was little, here's my chance!” “Yeah?!” asked Anthony, in a surprised tone. “Are you filming me right now? Are you going to make me look real good?” laughed the barista in a frisky voice. Anthony smiled and, by then, Sophie had joined him at the service area, a little jealous. “What's this for?” asked Josie. She had worked on campus for a long time and was used to serving all sorts of weirdos. “No reason. I just filmed my structures class. And now, well now, I've just decided to keep the camera rolling.” Josie asked again, “Are you really filming me right now?” Anthony reaffirmed, “Yes.”

Sophie looked on in disbelief. The camera had just become the focal point for flirtation. She wasn't liking it one bit. Josie asked Anthony again, “Why are you filming?” Anthony didn't know why he blurted out what he did but he said, “Umm…to sort of get the reactions of people. Like how they act when they see someone actually recording them.” The male attendant interrupted, “You know what you should do? You should go up to him,” pointing to the manager, “and just stare at him, like just stare him in the face.” “I will, I will,” said Anthony. Egging Anthony on, the male attendant smiled, “Stand in front of the queue there, and just stare at him. He'll love it, he'll love it, trust me. You'd make his day man.” “Hey, where's my cappuccino and toastie?” demanded Anthony. The male attendant handed the food over and got Sophie's food ready too. “And this must be yours.” “Yes,” Sophie replied. The male attendant insisted: “Focus on him now, don't focus on me, all right?” “Yup, ok, see you later. Cheers.” Anthony felt a little diminished; although he was surprised that the barista talked to him for as long as she did, he wasn't about to pick a fight with an old bloke. What he was doing was harmless, he thought; he left the counter to take a seat, but considered switching off the device.

Scenario 5: Finding a Table at the Cafe

Sophie found a table with two seats left in a sunny spot and put her things down. Lack of sleep during exam time meant that everyone generally felt cold. Anthony sat down also. At the large oblong table was a small group of three—two girls and a guy. Sophie went looking for serviettes, as they forgot them at the counter. As soon as Anthony pulled up a chair to sit down, one of the girls got up and said, “And you have a lovely afternoon.” Anthony replied, “Thank you and you too.” Speechless, the other two students at the table picked up whatever was left of their drinks and left not long after. As Sophie returned, she saw the small group leaving and whispered, “Anthony, maybe you should take that thing off. You're getting quite a bit of attention. It's not good. A joke's a joke. Alright, I could cope with the classroom situation, but coming to the café and telling people you're recording. Surely, you are not, right? You're just kidding, right?” “Listen, Sophie, I'm recording you now. The battery pack lasts a while, about an hour, before it needs replacing. I'm going to have to charge the backup during the next lecture.” “Anthony,” Sophie whined, “c'mon, just turn it off.” Anthony acted like he was turning it off reluctantly although he had not. “Now put it away,” Sophie insisted. “No, I'm going to leave it on my head,” Anthony said. “I couldn't be bothered, to tell you honestly. Just don't forget to remind me to turn it back on when we are in class.” “Good,” said Sophie.

By then, two girls asked if they could sit down at the table. “Sure,” said Sophie. The girls were known to Sophie, at the Residence but they merely exchanged niceties. “My name is Klara,” said one of the girls. “And my name is Cygneta,” said the other. “I'm Sophie, and this is my boyfriend Anthony. Nice to finally get to talk to you. That'd be right. Just when we should all be studying, we're procrastinating and socializing.” Anthony was happy for the change of conversation, so he thought.

“I know what that is, Anthony! It's a GoPro,” Cygneta exclaimed. “Sophie, Sophie, I wouldn't let my man carry that thing around on campus filming all those pretty ladies.” Cygneta giggled childishly, and Klara joined her in harmony but did not know anything about the contraption on Anthony's head. Sophie was reminded why she had never bothered approaching Cygneta at the Residence. Those two were inseparable and always too cute—the typical creative arts and marketing students. Sophie retorted, “Well, he's not filming right now. He just filmed the lecture we were in.” Anthony made Sophie think twice. “How do you know I'm not filming right now?” Sophie said, “Because the counter on the LCD is not ticking.” Cygneta had used a GoPro to film her major project and knew that you could toggle the LCD not to show a counter, sharing this with the group. Sophie didn't like it one bit. It made her doubt Anthony.

Anthony proceeded to ask Klara, “How do you feel when you see someone recording you?” “Yeah, not great. I feel, like, really awkward,” confessed Klara. Then Anthony asked the million dollar question: “What if most people wore a Google Glass on campus and freed themselves of having to carry an iPhone?” Klara at this point was really confused. “Google what?” Sophie repeated, “Google Glass” in unison with Anthony. Shaking her head from side to side, Klara said, “Nah, I'm not into that kind of marketing at all.” “But it's the perfect marketing tool to gather information,” considered Anthony. “Maybe you're going to start using it one day as well? Don't you think?” Klara looked at Sophie and Anthony and replied, “What do you mean? Sorry?” Anthony repeated, “Do you reckon you're gonna be using Google Glass in a couple of years?” Klara turned to Cygneta for advice. “What in the world is Google Glass? It sounds dangerous?” Anthony explained, “It's a computer that you can wear as glasses. But it's a computer at the same time.” Klara let out a sigh. “I had no idea that even existed, and I think I'm a good marketing student and on top of things.”

By this stage, Sophie was feeling slighted and decided to finish her food, which was now cold. Anthony, caught off guard by Klara's lack of awareness, reaffirmed, “So you don't reckon you'd be wearing glasses that can record and works as a phone or a headband capable of reading brain waves?” Cygneta said, “Probably not,” and Klara also agreed, “No. I like my phone just fine. At least I can choose when I want to switch it off. Who knows what could happen with these glasses? It's a bit too out there for me. That stuff's for geeks, I think. And anyway, there's nothing interesting in my life to capture—just one big boring stream of uni, work, and home.”

Sophie pointed out an interesting fact: “Hey girls, did you know that there's no law in Australia that forbids people from video recording others in public? If it's happening out on the street, then it ain't private.” Cygneta replied, “Yeah I heard this news the other day; one of the ministers was caught on video heavily cursing to another minister when he was listening to his speech. He was waiting for his turn to give a speech of his own, apparently, and he didn't even notice someone was recording him. What an idiot!”

Sophie asked Anthony to accompany her to the bank. Lunch was almost over, and the lecture was now less than an hour away. The pair had not studied, although at the very next table was a group of six buried in books from the structures class. Klara and Cygneta went to order a meal at the café and said goodbye. Anthony reluctantly got up from the table and followed Sophie to the study group. Sophie bravely asked, “Anyone got any solutions yet to the latest practice questions?” People looked up, and the “little master,” who was codenamed for his genius, said, “Not yet.” None of the other engineering students, mostly of Asian background, could even care less about the camera mounted on Anthony's head. Sophie found this disturbing and startling. She immediately thought about those little drones being developed and how men seemed to purchase these toys way more than any woman she knew. Who knows what the future would hold for humankind, she thought. Maybe the guys would end up loving their machines so much they'd forget spending time with real people! Sophie liked the challenge of engineering, but it was at times strange to be in a room full of guys.

The power to exclude, delete, or misrepresent an event is with the wearer and not the passive passerby.

Scenario 6: A Visit to the C.A.B. Bank

Sophie was beginning to really tire of the GoPro shenanigans. She asked Anthony to wait outside the bank since he would not take off the contraption. Sophie was being pushed to the limit. Stressed out with exams coming up and a boyfriend who seemed preoccupied with proving a point, whatever that point was, she just needed things to go smoothly at the bank. Luckily this was the less popular bank on campus, and there was hardly anyone in it. Sophie went right up to the attendant but called out for Anthony to help her with her bag while she rummaged in her handbag for her driver's license. Anthony sat down on one of the sitting cubes and, looking up, realized he was now in the “being recorded” position in the bank himself. One attendant left the bank smiling directly into the camera and at Anthony. He thought, “How's that for security?” The third teller leaned over the screen and asked Anthony, “Is there anything we can help you with?” Anthony said, “I'm waiting for my girlfriend,” which seemed to appease the teller too easily.

It was now time for Sophie to withdraw money at the teller. Anthony really didn't mind because Sophie was always there to support him, no matter how long it took. They reflected that they had not more than 30 min left to do a couple more errands, including visit the ATM and go to the library. There were four people in the queue at the ATM. Anthony grabbed Sophie's hand and whispered in her ear, “Sophie, do you realize something? If I was recording right now, I'd be able to see all the PIN numbers of all the people in front of us.” Sophie shushed Anthony. “You're going to get us in trouble today. Enough's enough.” “No really, Sophie, we've got to tell security. They're worried about tiny cameras looking down and skimming devices, but what about the cameras people are wearing now?” Sophie squeezed Anthony's hand—“Anthony, you are going to get us in serious trouble. And this is not the time to be saving the world from cybercriminals.” Anthony moved away from the queue, realizing that his face was probably being recorded on CCTV. The last thing he ever wanted was to be in trouble. He went to instantly budge the GoPro off his head; it was becoming rather hot even though it had been a cool day, and it was beginning to feel uncomfortable and heavy on his back and neck muscles. By the time he could get his act together, Sophie had made her transaction and they were hurriedly off to the library just before class.

Scenario 7: In the Library

As they rushed into the library to get some last-minute resources, Anthony and Sophie decided to split up. Sophie was going to the reserved collection to ask for access to notes that the special topics lecturer had put on closed reserve, and Anthony was going to do some last-minute bibliographic searches for the group assignment that was due in a few days. Why was it that things were always crammed into the last two weeks of the session? How on earth was any human being able to survive those kinds of demands? Anthony grabbed Sophie's bag and proceeded to the front computers. It was packed in the library because everyone was trying to do their final assignments. As Anthony hovered behind the other students, he remembered the shoulder-surfing phenomenon he had considered at the ATM. It was exactly the same. Anthony made sure not to look forward. As soon as there was an empty computer, he'd be next. He conducted some library searches standing up and then spotted two guys moving away from a sit-down desk area. Given all the stuff he was carrying, he thought he'd ask the guys nearby if they had finished. They said yes and tried to vacate the space as fast as they could, being courteous to Anthony's needs. By this time, Anthony was also sweating profusely and had begun to look stressed out.

The cameras are now embedded in USBs, wristbands, pens, keyfobs, bags, and t-shirts.

Anthony dumped his stuff on the ground, and the shorter of the two men said, “Are you wearing a camera on your head?” Anthony muttered to himself, “Oh no, not again.” Had he been able to take the device off his head effortlessly, he would have. After wearing it for over 2 h straight, it had developed an octopus-like suction to his forehead. “Yeah, yeah, it's a camera.” This camera had brought him nothing but bad luck all day. Okay, so he had taped most of the first lecture in the morning, but it had not been any good since. Sophie was angry with him over the café discussions, Oxford was not interested in being filmed without his knowledge, and Anthony's shoulders were really starting to ache and he was developing a splitting headache. “You guys would not happen to be from civil engineering?” Anthony asked in the hope that he and Sophie might get some hints for the forthcoming group assignment. “Nah, we're from commerce.” Both men walked away after saying goodbye, and Anthony was left to ponder. Time was running out quickly, so he left his things where they were and decided to go to the desk and ask for help directly.

“Hello, I am wondering if you would be willing to help me. My name is Anthony, and I am doing research on…” The librarian studied Anthony's head closely. “Umm…can I just ask what's happening here? Please tell me you are not recording this conversation,” asked the librarian politely. “What?” said Anthony, completely oblivious to the camera mounted on his head. He then came to his senses. “Oh that? That's just a GoPro. I've not got it on. See?” He brought his head nearer to the librarian, who put on her glasses. “Now, I'm looking for…” “I'm sorry, young man, I'm going to have to call down the manager on duty. You just cannot come into the library looking like that. In fact, even onto campus.”

Anthony felt like all of his worst nightmares were coming true. He felt like running, but his and Sophie's belongings were at the cubicle and besides, the library security CCTV had been recording for the last few minutes. His parents would never forgive him if anything jeopardized his studies. Sophie was still likely photocopying in closed reserve. What would she think if she came out to be greeted by all this commotion? The manager of “The Library”—oh he felt a bad feeling in the pit of his stomach. Anthony knew he had done nothing wrong, but that was not the point at this time. The librarian seemed less informed than even he was of his citizen rights, and while she was on the phone, hurriedly trying to get through to the manager, Sophie returned with materials.

“Where are our bags? My laptop is in there Anthony.” Anthony signaled over to the cubicle, didn't go into details, and asked Sophie to return to the desk to do some more searches while he was with the librarian. Surprisingly, she complied immediately given the time on the clock. Anthony was relieved. “Look,” he said to the librarian, “I am not crazy, and I know what I am doing is legal.” She gestured to him to wait until she got off the phone. “Right-o, so the manager's at lunch, and so I'll have to have a chat with you. First and foremost, when you're taking footage of the students, you need permission and all that sort of thing. I'm just here to clarify that to you.” “Look, umm, Sue, I'm not recording right now, so I guess I can wear whatever I want and look as stupid as I want so long as I'm not being a public nuisance.” “Young man, can I have your student ID card please?” Anthony claimed he did not have one with him, but was trying to avoid returning back to where Sophie was to get hit with even more questions. Anthony proceeded by providing the librarian his full name.

“Well, Anthony Fielding, it is against university policy to go around recording people in a public or private space,” stated the librarian firmly. Anthony, by now, had enough. “Look, Sue, for the second time, I've not recorded anyone in the library. I did record part of my lecture today with this device. It is called a GoPro. Why hasn't anyone but me heard about it?” “Well we have heard of Google Glass here, and we know for now, we don't want just anyone waltzing around filming indiscriminately. That doesn't help anyone on campus,” the librarian responded. “Okay, based on my experience today, I know you are right,” Anthony admitted. “But can you at least point me toward a library policy that clearly stipulates what we can and cannot do with cameras? And why is this kind of camera one that you're alarmed about rather than a more flexible handheld one like this one?” Anthony pulled out his iPhone 6. The librarian seemed oblivious to what Anthony was trying to argue. Meanwhile, Anthony glanced over to Sophie half-smiling, indicating they will have to make a move soon by pointing at his watch and then the exit.

“Look, I know you mean well. But…” Anthony was interrupted again by the librarian. “Anthony Fielding, it is very important you understand what I am about to tell you; otherwise you might end up getting yourself in quite a bit of trouble. If you're recording students, you actually have to inform the student and ask if it's okay, because quite a lot of them are hesitant about being filmed.” Anthony retorted, “I know, I know, do unto others as you'd have them do unto you, but I already told you, I'm not recording…But which policy do you want to refer me to and I'll go and read it, I promise.” The librarian hesitated and murmured behind her computer, “Ah…I'll have to look…look…look and find it for you, but I just…I just know that…” The librarian realized the students were going to be late for a lecture. “Look, if you're right and there is no policy, assuming I've not made an error, then we need to develop one.” “Look, Sue, I don't mean to be rude, but we've already filmed in a lecture theater today. I wouldn't call a public theater, private in any capacity. Sure people can have private conversations in a theater, but they shouldn't be talking about private things unless they want to actively share it during class discussion time.” “Look, that's a bit of a gray area,” the librarian answered. “I think I am going to have to ask security to come over. It's just that I don't think the safety of others is being put first. For starters, you should take that thing off.” Anthony realized that things were now serious. He attempted to take off the band, which was soaking wet from sweat given his latest predicament.

Sophie realized something was wrong when she was walking with the bags back to the information desk. “Anthony, what's happening?” Sophie had a worried look on her face. “I've been asked to wait for security,” said Anthony. “Can you please not worry and just leave for class? I won't feel so bad if you go on without me.” Sophie responded, “Anthony, I told you this thing was trouble—you should have just taken it off—oh Anthony!” “What now?” said Anthony. “Your forehead…are you okay? It's all red and wrinkly and sweaty. Are you feeling okay?” Sophie put her hand on Anthony's forehead and realized he was running a fever. “Look, is this really necessary? My boyfriend has not done anything wrong. He's taken off the device. If you want to see the lecture footage, we'll show you. But really, the guy has to pass this subject. Please can we go to the lecture theater?” The librarian was unequivocally unemotional. Anthony looked at Sophie and she nodded okay and left for class with all the bags. “Please ring me if you need anything, and I'll be here in a flash.” Sophie kissed Anthony goodbye.

Scenario 8: Security on Campus

Moments later, security arrived on the scene. Anthony challenged the security guards and emphasized that he had done nothing wrong. Anthony was escorted back to the security office on campus some 500 m away. At this point, he was told he was not being detained, that simply university security staff were going to have a chat with him. Anthony became deeply concerned when several security staff greeted him at the front desk. They welcomed him inside and asked him to take a seat and whether or not he'd like a cup of coffee.

“Anthony, there have been a spate of thefts on campus of late. We'd like to ask you where you got your GoPro camera.” “Well, it was a birthday present from my older brother a few months ago,” Anthony explained. “He knows I've always made home movies from when I was a youngster, and he thought I might use it to film my own skateboarding stunts.” “Right,” said the police officer, “Could you let me take a look at the serial number at the bottom of the unit?” “Sure,” said Anthony, “and then can I go? I haven't stolen anything.” The security staff inspected the device and checked the serial number against their database, handing it back to Anthony. “Ok, you're free to go now.” “What? And I thought you were going to interrogate me for the footage I took today!”

“Look Anthony, that's a delicate issue. Yeah, under the Surveillance Devices Act, for you to be able to record somebody you need their explicit permission, which is why you'll see wherever we've got cameras we've got signage that states you're being filmed, and even then we've got a strict policy about what we do with the recordings. We can't let anybody view it unless it's police and so on, but it's really strict.” Anthony replied, “What happens when Google Glass begins to proliferate on campus? The GoPro, which will be obvious, won't be what you're looking out for but rather Glass being misused or covert devices.” “Look, security, the way it works at universities is that you are concerned with the here and now. I can't predict what will happen in about three months' time, right?” At this point Anthony was thinking about his lecture and how he was running late, yet again, however, this time through no fault of his own.

“Is she with you?” asked the security manager. “Who do you mean?” questioned Anthony. “That young lady over there,” the manager replied, pointing through the screen door. “Oh, that's my girlfriend, Sophie. I reckon she was worried about me and came to see what was going on.” Sophie had her iPhone out and was recording the goings on. Anthony just had to ask, “Am I right? Is my girlfriend allowed to do that? She isn't trespassing. The university campus is a public space for all to enjoy.” The security manager replied, “Actually, she's recording me, but she's not really allowed to do that without giving me some sort of notification. We might have cameras crawling all over this campus for student and staff safety, but our laws state if people don't want to be recorded, then you should not be recording them. On top of this, you would probably realize that when you walk around the campus in large areas like the walkways, they're actually facing the road, they're not facing people. So yes, you need permission for what she's doing there or adequate signage explaining what is going on.”

Sophie put the phone down and knocked on the door. “Can I come inside?” “Of course you can,” said the security manager. “Join the party!” “Anthony, Prof. Gabriel is asking for you; otherwise, he'll count you absent and you won't get your 10% participation mark for the session. I told him I knew where you were. If we get back within 15 min, you're off the hook.” “Hang on Sophie,” Anthony continued, “I'd like to solve this problem now to avoid any future misunderstandings. After all, I'm about to enter the classroom and record it for my own learning and progress. What do you think? Is that against the law?” Anthony asked the security manager. The security manager pondered for a long while. “Look, we get lots and lots of requests asking us to investigate the filming of an individual; we take that very seriously. But there is no law against that taking place in a public space.” “Is a lecture theater a public space?” Anthony prompted. The security manager replied, “I think you should be allowed to use headmounted display video cameras if it's obvious what you're doing and unless a bystander asks you to cease recording. The lecture rooms are open and are usually mixed with the reception areas, which makes them public areas; so if you want to gain access to the room, obviously you can because it's a public area. You don't have to use a swipe card to get in, you see. But then there are still things that you can't do in a public area, like you can't ride a bicycle in there; or if someone is giving a lecture, you can't interrupt the lecture. That sort of thing.”

Anthony started speaking from the experience of his day. “I was queueing in front of the ATM today, and I realized that I could easily see the activities of the people in front of me and the same in the library. When I hover around somebody's computer, I can see their screen and what they're up to on the Internet. It bothered even me after my experience today; unintentionally I'm seeing someone's ATM PIN number, I'm seeing someone searching on Google about how to survive HIV, which is personal and highly sensitive private stuff. No one should be seeing that. I just wore my GoPro to record my lecture for study purposes, but these kinds of devices in everyday life must be very disturbing for the people being recorded. That's why I'm curious what would happen on campus.” The security manager interrupted, “We already have some policies in place. For example, you can make a video recording, but what are you going to do with it? Are you going to watch it yourself or are you going to e-mail it around? You can't do that using your university e-mail account. You can't download, transfer, or copy videos using university Internet, your university account, or your university e-mail account. Look it up; there are also rules about harassment…It's fairly strict and already organized in that regard. But if you're asking where the university is applying policies, you're asking the wrong people because we don't get involved in policy making. You should be talking to the legal department. We don't make the policies; we just follow the procedures. Every citizen of this nation also has to abide by state and federal laws.”

The explanation satisfied Anthony. He realized that the security manager was not the person to talk to for any further inquiries. “Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions; you've been very helpful,” Anthony said as he headed to the door to attend his class with Sophie. He did need that 10% attendance mark from Prof. Gabriel if he wanted to be in the running for a Distinction grade.

Scenario 9: Sophie's Lecture

After their last lecture together, Anthony was happy thinking he was almost done for the day and he would be heading back home but Sophie had one more hour of tutorial. Anthony walked Sophie to her last tutorial's classroom. “C'mon Anthony, it'll only take half an hour tops. After this class, we can leave together; bear with it for just a while,” Sophie insisted. “Okay,” said Anthony; his mind was overflowing with the thought of the final exams and questions raised in his mind by his unique experience with the GoPro all day.

They arrived a few minutes late. Sophie quietly opened the door as Anthony walked in behind her. The lecturer took a glimpse of Anthony with the GoPro on his head. The lecturer asked Anthony, “Are you in this class?” “No, I'm just with a friend,” replied Anthony as he was still trying to walk in and take a seat. “Okay and you're wearing a camera?” “Yeah?!” Anthony replied, confused by the tone of the lecturer. “Take it off!” the lecturer exclaimed. “You don't have permission to wear a camera in my class!” Silence fell over the classroom. As the lecturer's tone became more aggravated, everyone stopped, trying to understand what was going on. “Ok, but it's not…” The lecturer refused to hear any explanation. “You're not supposed to interrupt my class, and you're not supposed to be wearing a camera, so please take the camera off and leave the class!”

Anthony saw no point in explaining himself and left the class. Sophie, in shock, followed Anthony outside to check up on him and make sure he was all right. “Oh Anthony, I don't know how many times I told you to take it off all day…Are you ok?” Anthony was shocked as well. “I don't understand why he got so upset.” Anthony was facing the lecture theater's glass door; it opened and the lecturer stepped out and asked, “Excuse me, are you filming inside the class?” “Professor…” Anthony tried to say he was sorry for the trouble and that he wasn't even recording. “No! Were you filming inside the class?” the lecturer asked again. “I'm sorry if I caused you trouble, professor, the camera is not even on.” The professor, angry at both of them for interrupting his class with such a silly incident, asked them to leave and returned to the lecture theater. Sophie was surprised. “He's a very nice person; I don't understand why he got so upset.” Anthony's shock turned into anger. “I thought this was a public space and I don't think there's any policy that forbids me to record the lecture! Couldn't he at least say it nicely? You get back in, I'll see you after your class, and meanwhile I'll take this darn thing off.” Anthony kissed Sophie goodbye and left for the library without the GoPro on his head.

Conclusion

Wearable computers—digital glasses, watches, headbands, armbands, and other apparel that can lifelog and record visual evidence—tell you where you are on the Earth's surface and how to navigate to your destination, alert you of your physical condition (heart and pulse rate monitors), and even inform you when you are running late to catch a plane, offering rescheduling advice. These devices are windows to others through social networking, bridges to storage centers, and, even on occasion, companions as they listen to your commands and respond like a personal assistant. Google Glass, for instance, is a wearable computer with an optical head-mounted display that acts on voice commands like “take a picture” and allows for hands-free recording. You can share what you see live with your social network, and it provides directions right in front of your eyes. Glass even syncs your deadlines with speed, distance, and time data critical to forthcoming appointments.

The slim-line Narrative Clip is the latest gadget to enter the wearable space.

But Google is not alone. Microsoft was in the business of lifelogging more than a decade ago with its SenseCam device, which has now been replaced by the Autographer. Initially developed to help those suffering with dementia as a memory aid, the Autographer takes a 5-mp picture about 2,000 times a day and can be replayed in fast-forward mode in about 5 min. It is jam-packed with sensors that provide a context for the photo including an accelerometer, light sensor, magnetometer, infrared motion detector, and thermometer as well as a GPS chipset. The slim-line Narrative Clip is the latest gadget to enter the wearable space. Far less obtrusive than Glass or Autographer, it can be pinned onto your shirt, takes a snapshot every 30 s, and is so lightweight that you quickly forget you are even wearing it.

These devices make computers part of the human interface. But what are the implications of inviting all this technology onto the body? We seem to be producing innovations at an ever-increasing rate and expect adoption to match that cycle of change. But while humans have limitations, technologies do not. We can keep developing at an incredible speed, but there are many questions about trust, privacy, security, and the effects on psychological well-being that, if left unaddressed, could have major risks and often negative societal effects. The most invasive feature of all of these wearables, however, is the image sensor that can take pictures in an outward-looking fashion.

The claim is often made that we are under surveillance by CCTV even within leisure centers and change rooms. But having a Glass device, Autographer, or Narrative Clip recording while you are in a private space, like a “public” washroom, provides all sorts of nightmare scenarios. The camera is looking outward, not at you. Those who believe that they will remember to turn off the camera, will not be tempted to keep the camera “rolling,” or will “delete” the data gathered at a later date are only kidding themselves. We can hardly delete our e-mail records, let alone the thousands of pictures or images we take each day. The recording of sensitive data might also increase criminality rather than reduce it. The power to exclude, delete, or misrepresent an event is with the wearer and not the passive passerby. There is an asymmetry here that cannot be rectified unless the passive participant becomes an active wearer themselves. And this is not only unfeasible, but we would argue undesirable. At what point do we say enough is enough?

We are challenging fundamental human rights through the thoughtless adoption of new technologies that are enslaving us to a paradigm of instantaneous reality-TV-style living. We are seduced into providing ever more of our personal selves without any concerns for the protection of our personal data. Who owns the data emanating from these devices if the information is stored somewhere other than the device itself? Does that mean I lose my capacity to own my own set of histories relating to my physiological characteristics as they are sold on to third-party suppliers? Who will return my sense of self after I have given it away to someone else? We need to face up to these real and proportional matters because they not only have lawful implications but implications for our humanity.

IEEE Keywords: Wearable computing, Market research, Product design, Product development, Consumer behavior,Supply and demand, Digital computers, Google, Marketing and sales

References

[1] M. Lindgren and H. Bandhold, Scenario Planning: The Link Between Future and Strategy. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, p. 22. 

[2] S. Inayatullah, “Humanity 3000: A comparative analysis of methodological approaches to forecasting the long-term,” Foresight, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 401–417, 2012. 

[3] M. Godet, “The art of scenarios and strategic planning,” Technol. Forecast. Social Change, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 3–22, 2000. 

[4] L. Perusco and K. Michael, “Control, trust, privacy, and security: Evaluating location-based services,” IEEE Technol. Soc. Mag., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 4–16, 2007. 

[5] K. Michael and M. G. Michael. (2013). No limits to watching. Commun. ACM. [Online]. 56(11), 26–28. Available: http://cacm.acm.org/ magazines/2013/11/169022-no-limits-to-watching/abstract 

[6] Y. Gokyer, K. Michael, and A. Preston. Katina Michael discusses pervasive video recording in the accompaniment to “No Limits to Watching” on ACM’s vimeo channel. [Online]. Available: http://vimeo. com/77810226 

[7] K. Michael. (2013). Social implications of wearable computing and augmediated reality in every day life. In Proc. IEEE Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS13), Toronto,

INSPEC: wearable computers, helmet mounted displays, innovation management, wearable computer, digital wearability scenarios, experimental technologies, market leaders, state-based regulations, innovation design practices, radical production, Google Glass product, optical head-mounted display unit

Citation:  Deniz Gokye, Katina Michael, Digital Wearability Scenarios: Trialability on the run, IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, Year: 2015, Volume: 4, Issue: 2, pp. 82-91, DOI: 10.1109/MCE.2015.2393005 

RFID—A Unique Radio Innovation for the 21st Century  

In 1948, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers published Harry Stockman's seminal work on “communication by means of reflected power,” which many consider as the first paper on radio-frequency identification (RFID). The paper concluded by expressing the expectation that “considerable research and development work has to be done before the remaining basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved, and before the field of useful applications is explored.” It is only appropriate that after more than 60 years following the publication of this work by its progenitor, in this special issue, the Proceedings of the IEEE review current developments towards the realization of the goal outlined by Stockman.

This special issue explores the state of the art across the RFID technology landscape from hardware, to systems, as well as applications and support for innovative business models.

Indeed, while RFID technology has been around for decades, it is only in the last ten years or so that considerable progress in technology and standardization, resulting in large-scale manufacturing of high-performance RFID system at affordable prices, has reignited interest in RFID, and has significantly extended the scope of possible applications. To a certain extent, addressing the main problems associated with RFID technology itself has been only the beginning of this process, as similarly extensive breakthroughs have been and are still required within associated information systems so that they can take advantage of the technology. For example, while it has become technically and economically feasible to tag a wide variety of manufactured artefacts for some time now, enterprise IT systems have been unable to cope with such detailed information and the high volumes of data generated as a result of IDs that are unique for each item. As a result such systems have already undergone considerable development so as to simply be able to record such information, with further work required in the future.

Stockman also correctly anticipated that applications would play a central role in taking RFID technology forward. While the first generation of RFID involved the concurrent reading of one or a small number of tags that moreover carried only a simple identifier, today's novel applications are making greater demands on tags, readers, middleware, infrastructure, and IT in terms of affordability, performance, and flexibility. Notable among them are the initiatives by the Department of Defence and Wal-Mart in supply chain operations, which have played a central role in increasing awareness, and in highlighting the business value and the challenges in deploying RFID. By tracking assets, supplies, and personnel, many enterprises are increasingly experimenting with new business models to integrate RFID within their digital ecosystems.

While innovation in basic RFID and supporting technologies continues to advance the field, the marketplace also plays a central role by eliminating the less viable options. To be sure, this interplay between the research community and the engineering and business community has been instrumental in the development of RFID, and in this special issue, we aim to represent both sides and their concerns.

RFID is increasingly seen as far more than a simple and effective automatic identification technology. Academic and industrial proponents view RFID as the cost-effective technical solution for the development of open, shared, universal ubiquitous computing infrastructures thus pioneering the next paradigm in computing. From this point of view, RFID is seen as the core ingredient that enables the coupling of physical entities and digital information into cyberphysical systems and is widely expected to bring about pervasive computing One of the main challenges towards the realization of this vision, often also expressed using the term internet or web of things/artifacts,1 is the provision of networked services that support interaction between conventional information systems and such augmented natural objects and manufactured artifacts.

This special issue explores the state of the art across the RFID landscape from hardware, to systems, applications, and support for innovative business models.

The first two papers consider techniques that can lead to improvements of RFID tag performance across applications. Moretto et al. employ modeling and simulation to investigate the loading effect and its implications for RFID tag antenna performance. In particular, they propose an optimal model of shunt resistance and calculate boundaries for this effect with regard to distance from the reader, which imply support for larger tag memories, on-tag encryption, and improved performance in hostile environments. Bolomey et al. introduce the concept of transfer impedance to characterize RFID systems. Furthermore, they employ two metrics to assess the performance of RFID tags, and illustrate their application in several case studies. They conclude by demonstrating how their model can be used in practical situations to investigate the tradeoffs for RFID tag design in specific applications.

Furthermore, Dardari et al. survey the application of ultrawideband technology to RFID considering specific opportunities for improved area coverage, better resilience to interference, higher multiple-access capability, and higher ranging resolution that can facilitate more accurate localization.

The following three papers consider the case of RFID-enabled wireless sensor networks. Roy et al. examine how sensors can be integrated into tags, with emphasis on enhancements to link and multiple-access layers, and support for advanced power management. The paper reports on two key innovations introduced by the authors, namely, a programmable tag powered through energy harvesting and a software-defined RFID reader. Bhattacharyya et al. discuss a scheme that allows RFID tags to be used as low-cost sensors by mapping a change in some physical parameter of interest to a controlled change in RFID tag antenna electrical properties. The paper provides three application types for which this class of RFID sensing is well suited, including temperature threshold sensing, displacement sensing, and fluid level sensing. Lakafosis et al. consider the case of printed electronics on flexible and paper substrates. They highlight their unique capabilities and the benefits of using paper as the ultra-low-cost, conformal, and environmentally friendly substrate for mass-scale and ubiquitous implementation of such applications, thus eliminating the need of expensive RFID reader infrastructure.

Merilampi et al. also consider the use of printed electronics for RFID. Specifically, they investigate the effect of the conductive ink layer thickness on the performance of printed ultra-high-frequency (UHF) RFID tag antennas. The relationship established between performance characteristics and ink thickness provides a basis for tradeoff optimization between the cost and read range requirements in certain applications.

Hande et al. present a piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting design for active RFID tags. Vibration data from high-value assets used during disaster relief have been analyzed and their results provide a comprehensive description of their prototype including system form factors, efficiency, and lifetime.

Nikitin et al. demonstrate how by using hollow metal heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ducts can provide a potential communication channel between passive UHF readers and tags. HVAC ducts behave as electromagnetic waveguides with much lower signal attenuation compared to free-space propagation and the authors have been able to achieve a 30-m read range for standard tags with free-space range of only 6 m.

Chen et al. propose a novel EPC application level events (ALE) compliant logical reader abstraction defined on spatial zones and implemented by combining tracking information from passive RFID and positional information from active RFID. This approach allows for fine-grain, near-real-time tracking of high volumes of assets within large spaces, at significantly lower infrastructure cost.

Sani et al. presented an implantable RFID for medical applications paying special attention to its communication range and antenna design. Their research demonstrates that a passive tag solution allows only for a limited communication range due to the electrically small size of the antenna and nulls in the radiation pattern. Active tags are found to have distinct advantages in this domain.

Gentili and Iadanza address the problem of positive patient identification within a pediatric intensive care unit. They implement a tracking and identification system using IEEE 802.11 and active RFID technologies. The system appears to result into a substantial improvement according to the total risk priority number methodology, a technique employed by carers to assess patient risk, when compared to a non-RFID system.

Michael et al. discuss different alternative futures for RFID from establishing a rather simple alternative to bar code tagging to fulfilling its full potential as a core ingredient for the internet of things. They outline a vision for an RFID product service system, the kinds of smart applications that are likely to emerge in the future as a result of this, and the role of data management capabilities in planetary-scale systems.

Finally, Baker et al. report on a recent empirical study dealing with the RFID investment decision. The study examines the factors that affect this decision in the case of early RFID adopter and nonadopter companies. While the adoption cost remains a primary concern, the opportunity for strategic benefits in decision making is seen as a key factor for RFID adoption.

This collection of papers brings out the state of the art, the technical and engineering challenges that are faced by the field, the directions taken by the academic and the industrial community, and the opportunities in technology, standards, and business. RFID has gone from a niche industry now to becoming part and parcel of underlying technology in consumer and enterprise spaces. The future of RFID is expected to be even more exciting including intelligent tags, tags that can scavenge energy from the environment, readers and tags that can create meshes of self-organizing intelligent networks, embeddable tags, etc. We hope that this collection of papers forms the genesis of intellectual thought leadership discussions that go on to create a vibrant, viable, and sustainable RFID community.

Keywords: Special issues and sections, Radiofrequency identification, Technological innovation, radiofrequency identification, corporate modelling, innovation management, innovative business models, RFID technology

Citation: Rajit Gadh, George Roussos, Katina Michael, George Q. Huang, B. Shiv Prabhu, Peter Chu, "RFID—A Unique Radio Innovation for the 21st Century", Proceedings of the IEEE, Volume: 98, Issue: 9, Sept. 2010, pp. 1546 - 1549, DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2053871

Innovative Auto-ID and LBS - Chapter Two Innovation Studies

This chapter will explore literature in the field of innovation in order to establish a conceptual framework for the auto-ID trajectory research. The primary aim of this review is to provide a critical response to the literature on technological innovation. The review will also serve to: (i) identify and understand widely accepted definitions, concepts and terms, born from past innovation research as a guide for further research; (ii) review theories, theoretical frameworks and methods adopted by other researchers doing similar innovation studies (especially in the area of information technology) in order to choose an appropriate approach for this study; (iii) understand what aspects of complex high technologies (high-tech) have already been explored by researchers and what aspects have been neglected and to discover any similarities or differences in existing findings.

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Innovative Auto-ID and LBS - Chapter One Introduction

This study is concerned with the automatic identification (auto-ID) industry which first came to prominence in the early 1970s. Auto-ID belongs to that larger sector known as information technology (IT). As opposed to manual identification, auto-ID is the act of identifying a living or nonliving thing without direct human intervention. Of course, the process of auto-ID data capture and collection requires some degree of human intervention, but the very act of authenticating or verifying an entity can now be done automatically. An entity can possess a unique code indicating personal identification or a group code indicating conformity to a common set of characteristics. Some of the most prominent examples of auto-ID techniques that will be explored in this book include bar code, magnetic-stripe, integrated circuit (IC), biometric and radio-frequency identification (RFID). The devices in which these techniques are packaged include a variety of form factors such as labels and tags, card technologies, human feature recognition, and implants. 

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Barriers to RFID Adoption in the Supply Chain

Abstract

This paper will explore the interplay between the retailer's dilemma of product shrinkage and the solutions advocated by RFID vendors and associations to minimise product shrinkage. RFID as an emerging technology holds the potential to fulfil the needs of stakeholders in the supply chain.

Section I.

Introduction

This paper will explore the interplay between the retailer's dilemma of product shrinkage and the solutions advocated by RFID vendors and associations to minimise product shrinkage. RFID as an emerging technology holds the potential to fulfil the needs of stakeholders in the supply chain. The recent ratification of Generation-2 (Gen-2) RFID and the Electronic Product Code (EPC) standard developed by Global Standards One (GS1) has greatly influenced the adoption of RFID in certain industries. Despite these current standards supporting the technology, there still remain a number of challenges that prevent RFID appealing to the retail industry. These challenges involve overcoming barriers and inhibitors to the adoption of RFID implementation for the tracking of goods, especially at carton-level and item-level. An important point raised by the retailer's Delicatessen Manager is that “[i]t's hard to keep track of how many items we have in the supermarket.” If so, then why have we not seen a more effective supply chain management (SCM) solution in the Australian retail industry, such as RFID?

Section II.

RFID: The Emerging Technology

Rivalry among businesses leads to the relentless pursuit of competitive advantage. According to research conducted by [1], across all industries 28 percent of organisations are planning to experiment with RFID technologies within the next two years. This interest in RFID technology suggests that it could also be used by retailers for strategic advantage. Consider Michael Porter's [2] theory that well established organisations are in the best position to integrate new technologies with SCM by leveraging existing assets (legacy barcode systems) to further support their investments. In this light, retailers willing to minimise product shrinkage, now have the ability to do so by complementing existing legacy barcode systems and other supply chain processes with RFID. Today, retailers and manufacturers are using RFID technologies to manage their supply chains. U.S. based companies such as Wal-Mart, Tesco, Target, Proctor and Gamble, and Gillette have implemented RFID technologies across their supply chains. According to the RFID vendors and associations involved in this study, RFID is currently used by Chinese and Korean airports, pharmaceutical industries and casino and gambling industries. RFID is a reality in these industries by the support of Gen-2 RFID standard of tag and EPCGlobal for data storage. However, even with the proliferation of RFID across a diverse spectrum of industries, it is yet to engage the Australian retail industry.

Section III.

Methodology

Interview transcripts were combined and then analysed using the Leximancer content analysis software. The program is designed to automatically detect concepts in interview transcripts and create an analysis report or concept map (Figure 1). This map illustrates the interaction between concepts and provides an overview of how concepts relate to one another. The size of a circle which encapsulates a particular concept represents the relative importance of a concept and overlapping circles characterise association or closely allied concepts.

Figure 1. Leximancer Concept Map

Figure 1. Leximancer Concept Map

The concept map for this study was used to create themes for further discussion topics (Table 1). A total of six major concepts were discovered within the interview transcripts, each ofwhich forms part of this paper.

Table 1. Discussion themes created from the concept map

Table 1. Discussion themes created from the concept map

A. RFID Interviewees

RFID Vendor: 1 Business Development Manager

RFID Vendor 2: Systems Engineer

RFID Vendor 3: Managing Director

RFID Vendor 4: VP Marketing & Business Development

RFID Vendor 5: Managing Director

RFID Vendor 6: Managing Director

RFID Vendor 7: National Sales Manager

RFID Association

RFID Consultant

RFID Standards Standards Development Coordinator

 

Section IV.

Barriers To Adoption

There are a number of challenges that are currently restraining the proliferation of RFID in the retail industry as a SCM solution and as a means to minimise product shrinkage. These barriers to adoption were identified as cost, lack of awareness, immaturity of RFID technology and differing perceptions of product shrinkage and RFID.

A. Cost

This study revealed through supporting evidence that RFID is currently too expensive to be implemented by a retailer. The retailer's existing application of EAS tags to certain products is cost driven by the unit price or product lines deemed to be high-theft targets. According to the retailer's Loss Prevention Manager (1), cost prohibits the investment of newer generations of RFID at this stage. Although the technology has improved dramatically over the past decade, the cost of various RFID components remains a significant inhibitor to its adoption. It was agreed on by both the retailer and the RFID vendors and associations that cost was the most dominant barrier to the integration of RFID in a retail setting. In addition, RFID was dismissed as a possible SCM solution on most occasions solely based on this factor. As recognised by the Business Development Manager from RFID Vendor (1): “I think it'll take a fairly low cost tag and cost effective reader for them to implement an RFID system… the manufacturers of the technology are doing their best and investing a great amount of money into improving the technology. I think it's only going to get better and it's only going to get more cost effective, which means eventually it will be implemented.”

RFID readers and tags were found to be costly outlays in an RFID implementation. However, RFID tags in a supply chain solution require constant replenishment. RFID readers on the other hand have an initial outlay, but in most cases require little maintenance. A large scale operation, such as integrating RFID within a retail supply chain, requires a large number of RFID tags. Consequently, it was discovered that tags represented the larger expense of the two. The Systems Engineer from RFID Vendor (2) claimed: “[i]t's the tag cost that does sting, especially when you're comparing it to things like barcodes.” The price of an RFID tag is relative to the law of economies of scale. Economies of scale refers to the decreased per unit cost as output increases [3]. In other words, when RFID tags can be produced on a larger scale with less input costs economies of scale are thus achieved. The latest silicon technology and other advancements in RFID are to influence production volumes due to the lower costs of such materials (RFID Vendor 4). As illustrated in Figure 2, as the price of RFID tags fall and become more affordable, the adoption of RFID will increase. As predicted by RFID Vendor (2) “the magic number in the industry is 10 cents a tag” and retailers are more likely to see a return on investment with an RFID solution that is consistently cost effective. Nonetheless, the technology relies on other components rather than readers and tags alone.

Figure 2. RFID adoption model (cost vs production volume) Adapted (Kleist et al. 2006, p. 39 [4]; Lahiri 2006, p. 230 [5])

Figure 2. RFID adoption model (cost vs production volume) Adapted (Kleist et al. 2006, p. 39 [4]; Lahiri 2006, p. 230 [5])

It is most likely that an RFID solution for a retail supply chain would need to integrate a middleware application.

Middleware was also found to be an expensive component of an RFID system. As suggested by RFID Vendor (4): “you might need to get a middleware company involved like IBM or SAP and that's where your large costs are.” Many vendors were providers of hardware-based solutions and relied on a third party to integrate middleware and the communication between RFID tags and a Warehouse Management System (RFID Vendor 2). It was therefore confirmed that the overall costs involved in an RFID implementation are a barrier to its adoption. The technology may exist to build an RFID solution for a retail supply chain, yet it all comes down to developing business cases (RFID Vendor 3) and improving the general awareness of the technology in the industry.

B. Lack of Awareness

Another commonly occurring concept was ‘think’ which represents the lack of awareness of RFID technology. It was found that the overall awareness of Gen-2 RFID within the retailer studied was generally low. Loss Prevention staff members had a reasonable understanding but failed to recognise the true potential of RFID as a retail SCM solution and an effective loss prevention mechanism. This lack of awareness requires information sources to be directed at retailers to instigate a solution.

The RFID Association involved in the study was a nonprofit organisation, solely established to increase awareness of RFID through communication and forming a knowledge base. An interesting point raised by the RFID Consultant was that RFID “brings different knowledge into the same room” (RFID Association). This suggests that integrating RFID across the supply chain may require more than just the retailer and an RFID vendor. Perhaps other parties need to be involved such as; standards bodies, government departments, product manufacturers, logistics companies, wireless and other innovative technology providers. Forming business consortiums may instigate an alternative driver for RFID.

Table 2. Australian Demonstrator Project [6]

Table 2. Australian Demonstrator Project [6]

As quoted by RFID Vendor (1), “there really has to be a business case, and I think people really need to understand that”. So far, the Australian retail industry has only witnessed the Australian Demonstrator Project, chiefly conducted by Global Standards One (GS1) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) [6]. The study involved numerous participants (Table 2). As part of a pilot study, these participants set out to discover the benefits of RFID in a retail supply chain environment. The project formed a business case with a principal finding that internal knowledge and the use of standards is essential to a successful RFID implementation [6]. The study also advised that it is important that retailers in search of similar solutions investigate their own business challenges [6]. This could be made possible by forming consortiums and establishing a common goal through forming agreements or industry compliance mandates. A business challenge identified through the research in this thesis was product shrinkage; the retailer's dilemma.

C. Immature Technology

To be become a well established and accepted technology, like barcodes, RFID needs further development. As acknowledged by RFID Vendor (4) retailer's have “got some pretty good systems that have matured over time and it would be difficult to see where RFID could actually improve those systems.” In this instance, the vendor is referring to legacy barcode systems. RFID Vendor (1) also supported this theory: “retailers have invested an immense amount of money in moving their products from their distribution centres out to their stores and they do that quite well in this point in time.” RFID has a long way to go before its proliferation industry wide.

The suppliers of RFID equipment are also limited. For example, the Managing Director of RFID Vendor (5) claimed that his company is the only manufacturer in Australia for ultra long-range active tags. Using advanced battery management technology, similar to that of mobile phones, this type of tag has a battery life of seven to eight years (RFID Vendor 5). As a leading edge technology only recently available to the Australian market, suggests that these tags would most likely be expensive. This is yet another inhibitor to the adoption of RFID.

When asked whether RFID was hype or reality, the RFID Standards Body claimed that it is “somewhere in between”. In the case of Wal-Mart in the United States RFID is a reality (RFID Standards Body). However, in Australia, even though we consider RFID a reality, there are only fifteen major deployments including toll-ways on motor highways (RFID Standards Body). Conversely, RFID Vendor (5) responded: “It's a reality, definitely a reality… there's very, very few people that are actually providing solutions. There are a lot of people that are supplying tags, readers, technology and what have you. But you go and approach them and ask them how to solve a particular problem, they'll go huh? You'll have to go see an integrator to do that. Where are these integrators? So, unfortunately in that regard the industry is in its infancy.

It's only some of the big players that are only interested in the multi billion dollar deals with the likes of the Department of Defence and Wal-Mart, that are really getting into this. Down at the normal level, there are very few players that provide an actual solution. We're one of the few that do.”

In this light, RFID may well be a reality, yet in an Australian context it is still considered to be in its infancy. The barriers to entry expand even further when considering user perceptions of the technology. As this thesis is concerned with product shrinkage as a means to minimise product shrinkage, it was relevant to discover the differing views of product shrinkage and RFID.

Section V.

The Convergence of RFID and Legacy Systems

Australian retailers have invested large amounts of time and capital into refining their existing legacy barcodes systems. What was highlighted by numerous RFID vendors and associations involved in the study, is the inevitable convergence of RFID and barcode systems, suggesting that both technologies be integrated into the retail supply chain.

Figure 3. Dis(advantages) of Barcode and RFID

Figure 3. Dis(advantages) of Barcode and RFID

Interestingly, The Managing Director (RFID Vendor 6) mentioned that he would be very surprised if bar code systems were ever phased out completely. The future potential for barcodes to operate in conjunction with RFID as a backup system was also envisaged (RFID Vendors 3–6). The RFID Consultant from the RFID Association also stressed the importance of smart labels. A smart label is an adhesive label with a barcode and an RFID tag (Figure 3). This technology is designed to support cross-compatibility between barcode and RFID systems within a supply chain configuration. Dual compatibility of smart labels has required the development of a new standard for data storage.

Technology standards also need to converge if RFID and barcodes are to coexist. The Standards Development Coordinator from the RFID Standards Body was asked about the convergence of UPC, EAN and EPC standards. He explained that EAN and UPC form part of the EPC standard which is known as tag data standards (RFID Standards Body). Uniting barcodes and RFID using smart labels and tag data standards faciliates a transition period from a combined barcode and RFID solution, to RFID only. However, RFID Vendor (6) predicted an ‘RFID only’ solution for a retail supply chain to be highly unlikely. The levels at which RFID tags are to be applied to products and other assets across the retail supply chain is also significant.

Figure 4. The Barcode and RFID Adoption Lifecycle

Figure 4. The Barcode and RFID Adoption Lifecycle

A. Level of Tagging

RFID tags can be applied to objects at various levels. The three main levels include: item-level, carton-level, pallet-level and container-level (RFID Vendors 1–7; [7]). The most appropriate level of tracking depends on the application and the industry vertical in which a solution is to be implemented (RFID Vendor 2). According to the RFID Standards Body, the most realistic application for a retailer at this stage is carton-level or pallet-level tracking. This type of tracking monitors individual cartons or groups of cartons on a pallet. Other than the inhibitor of cost previously mentioned, item-level tracking is presented with a number of problems including read ranges and the complexity of integration throughout the entire supply chain (RFID Vendor 2; RFID Standards Body). However, the Vice President of Marketing and Business Development (RFID Vendor 4), suggested that item-level tracking is definitely an enabling technology in areas such as; access control and asset tracking but, “it doesn't make sense to put them on cans of beans or on clothes where barcodes are suitable.” Comparison of Characteristics BARCODES RFID Cost Relatively cheap, as the technology is quite mature. Expensive, although costs are expected to drop significantly as uptake increases and economies of scale are created. Ease of Use Simple and easy to use with little or no training required. The removal of human intervention and the level of automation negates any operating difficulties Ongoing Innovations Although barcodes are a mature technology, there are still continual innovations in the technology such as mobile phone barcode scanners and multimedia messaging service (MMS) barcode tickets such as “mobi-ticket”. RFID development is at a relatively immature state which means new applications are continually emerging. Reliability and Accuracy Barcodes are quite reliable and accurate, but are subject to operator mistakes and environmental hindrances. Some initial read reliability and accuracy issues have been discovered through pilots, however these are being solved as the technology matures. The technical nature of RFID and lack of human involvements means that theoretically its reliability and accuracy will be extremely high. Line-of-sight Barcodes are limited by line-of-sight optical scanning. Consequently, objects often have to be manually manipulated through human intervention. The radio nature of RFID means tags can be scanned remotely through packaging. It also leads to simultaneous reading where large numbers of items can be scanned within seconds. Information and Data Properties Traditional barcode symbologies only hold a minimal amount of information. Symbology innovations like two-dimensional (2D) and reduced space symbology (RSS) allow more information to be stored. Their uptake has been limited. Tags can typically hold as little or as much information as required by users, although this is limited by cost. Tags will allow for each individual item in the supply chain to be uniquely identified. In addition to this, tags can be updated as they move along the supply chain creating an audit trail. Environmental Considerations Asset Tracking Inventory Tracking A significant limitation of barcodes is the environment. As barcodes have to be in view of scanners they are subject to damage, weather and other stresses associated with movement across the supply chain. Barcodes can be used to track assets, enabling businesses to monitor the use of many investments such as tools. Limited inventory tracking is available; however, barcodes can generally only specify what type of product an item is, limiting its effectiveness. RFID tags can be very durable with some tags withstanding harsh chemical and extremely high temperatures. They are not subject to weather, nor are they typically damaged by rough handling, as they are stored inside packaging with the product. RFID tags allow organisations to track their assts as they are used. Tags can be attached to returnable items such as beer kegs to help maximise their use. The individual tracking of objects as they move along the supply chain is easy with RFID. The information on tags can also specify a product's expiry date. Inventory Management and Visibility Inventory control is one of the primary reasons for using barcodes in SCM. They provide better visibility, allow management systems to better forecast demands, and manage stock on hand, utilising practices such as just in time inventory management. Once fully deployed, RFID would provide organisations with an accurate picture of inventory levels in real-time. This allows management systems to act with enhanced knowledge and monitor all inventory details to maximise efficiency. Quality Control and Recall Management The inability to track unique items across the supply chain means that recalls and quality control cannot be very accurate. Individual item level management allows organisations to undertake stringent quality control practices and make very specific recalls when required. Tags can also monitor shock and temperature levels to ensure the quality of the end product. Level of Visibility The requirement of manual scanning at many SCM phases limits the availability and timeliness of information. Non-line-of-sight properties allow the continual monitoring of objects, which equates to real-time visibility. Security Barcodes provide limited or no security capabilities. Information rich, always-on tags give organisations the ability to constantly monitor tagged objects. Should an item go missing in the supply chain, systems can immediately initiate the appropriate response. Tags can also authenticate products to ensure they are not counterfeit. Error Reduction Compared to manual data entry, barcodes can reduce errors significantly. However as the scanning of barcodes is a physical process, human error can creep into the process with staff forgetting to scan items. RFID is highly automated and when setup correctly can achieve near perfect read rates. Automation removes the need for human manipulation, further lowering errors. Cost Savings Barcodes can help companies improve inventory management and efficiency; however, the physical scanning requirement of barcodes means that a large labour component is required. Once fully integrated into the supply chain, RFID could substantially lower operating costs and improve efficiency, reducing problems such as out-of-stock occurrences. Labour Considerations Provides a reduction compared to manual data entry, although scanning items still requires a sizable labour contingent. Automation directly eliminates a substantial labour component from SCM. As the technology becomes more pervasive, further labour reduction could be achieved through things like automated checkouts and smart shelves. Deployment Considerations Aside from environmental factors, there are few deployment considerations as the technology is inexpensive and widely used. Radio interference can prove to be a major issue in deployment, requiring numerous pilots and testing. The cost of RFID deployment and training are some other considerations. Established Barcodes are highly developed and are the standard in auto-ID SCM technology. It will be around for quite some time. RFID has a limited number of deployments in SCM. Despite this, recent mandates from leading companies mean that in the near future the technology will be used extensively. Privacy Concerns The barcodes inability to track individual items limits consumer privacy concerns. Tags are information rich and as they are quite durable, they can remain active for the lifetime of many products. The pervasive ‘always-on’ nature of the technology has caused concern among many privacy advocates.

A. RFID Source-tagging

Retailers drive their EAS source-tagging initiative by forming agreements with their suppliers. This initiative currently focuses on EAS anti-theft tags that are applied at point of manufacture and play a minor role in SCM processes. A high-end product may come source-tagged, but the tag's only function is to operate at store entry and exit points solely as an anti-theft mechanism. Consequently, the retailer's Store Trading Manager claimed that EAS does not minimise product shrinkage to a significant level. The enhanced functionality of Gen-2 RFID technology holds the potential to improve business decision making, especially when including all players in a retail supply chain.

Preliminary EAS agreements between suppliers and retailers may create the foundations for future agreements for an RFID enabled supply chain. This topic is closely linked to the notion that awareness and the formation of consortiums play a large role in the tagging of products at the point of manufacture. It was recommended by all RFID vendors and associations involved in this research that a successful RFID implementation requires the participation of all parties involved in a retail supply chain.

Section VI.

Integrating RFID Across the Entire Supply Chain

The levels at which products are to be tagged for distribution across the supply chain needs to be determined for the implementation of an RFID solution. When considering item-level tagging RFID Vendor (4) proposed the following: “[t]he whole benefit of barcodes wasn't established until everything had a barcode on it. So if you're going into a retailer and say I'll tag all the expensive stuff, but I won't tag all the cheap stuff, then they're not really utilising the benefits of RFID, you really have to tag everything, because otherwise you've got to have two systems. A system for the products that are tagged and one for the products that aren't tagged.” This quote suggests that stakeholders of a retail supply chain need to apply tags at item-level to utilise the full potential of RFID. Furthermore, RFID needs to be implemented across the entire supply chain to function in this manner and “[t]hat's where the real effort comes in” assured the Systems Engineer (RFID Vendor 2). Setting up a system at a distribution centre with over thirty truck bays can be extremely complicated (RFID Vendor 2). From a hardware perspective, testing and fine-tuning RFID solutions regularly encounters issues such as cross-over, multiple reads and other types of read errors (RFID Vendor 2). The task becomes “hugely complicated if we're talking about a full supply chain” (RFID Vendor 2).

Section VII.

Conclusion

This paper discussed the current issues surrounding RFID as an emerging technology for a SCM solution and as part of a loss prevention strategy for a retailer. Primary themes discussed the barriers to RFID adoption encompassing the costs involved in a solution, lack of awareness, RFID as an immature technology and the differing perceptions of product shrinkage and RFID. As each barrier to entry was examined, reciprocal relationships were found to exist between the retailer and RFID vendors and associations involved in this study. Investments made by retailers in legacy systems, was found to influence the convergence of RFID and barcodes supported by smart labels and tag data standards. With the various levels of RFID tagging available, it was determined that both pallet-level and carton-level tracking were most appropriate for an Australian retail application. Building upon business cases like the Australian Demonstrator Project and forming consortiums was found as a primary instigator to the future deployments of RFID. Source-tagging products at the point of manufacture was also supported by both the retailer and RFID vendors and associations as a means to minimise product shrinkage at various point across the supply chain, other than point of sale. These types of initiatives are likely to reinforce the overall success of an RFID SCM solution as part of a loss prevention strategy. Finally, it was discovered that the incorporation of retail supply chain stakeholders is critical to the overall effectiveness at which an RFID solution can function in order to minimise product shrinkage.

References

1. C. Bass, "Enterprise Solutions Mean Always Having New Opportunities to Add Value Outlook Point of View", 2003, [online] Available: http://www.accenture.com/NR/rdonlyres/8E86C567-F811-4B6F-B80DAD37D12E9446/0/enterprise_solutions_usltr.pdf.

2. E.M. Porter, "Strategy and the Internet Harvard Business Review", vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 62-79, 2001.

3. D. Besanko, D. Dranove, Schaefer, S. Shanley, "Economics of Strategy" in , Chichester:John Wiley, 2004.

4. R.A. Kleist, T.A. Chapman, D.A. Sakai, B.S. Jarvis, "RFID Labeling: Smart Labeling Concepts and Applications for the Consumer Packaged Goods Supply Chain" in , Irvine:Printronix Inc., pp. 39, 2005.

5. S. Lahiri, "RFID Sourcebook" in Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River:IBM Press, pp. 230, 2006.

6. "EPC Network Australian Demonstrator Project Report", Global Standards One Australia, 2006, [online] Available: http://www.gs1au.org/assets/documents/info/case_studies/case_epc_demo.pdf.

7. J. Borecki, "RFID Overview: Challenges and Opportunities", 2005, [online] Available: http://www.clm-mke.org/Presentations/Borecki%2001-06.pdf.

IEEE Keywords: Radiofrequency identification, Supply chains, Pharmaceutical technology, Supply chain management,Australia, Code standards, Standards development, Information systems, Investments, Manufacturing

INSPEC: supply chain management, radiofrequency identification, product shrinkage, radiofrequency identification, supply chain management

Citation:  Nicholas Huber, Katina Michael, Luke McCathie, Barriers to RFID Adoption in the Supply Chain, 1st Annual RFID Eurasia, 2007, Date of Conference: 5-6 Sept. 2007, Conference Location: Istanbul, Turkey, DOI: 10.1109/RFIDEURASIA.2007.4368128

 

Location-Based Services: a vehicle for IT&T convergence

Katina Michael

School of Information Technology & Computer Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia

Full Citation: Katina Michael, 2004, Location-Based Services: A Vehicle for IT&T Convergence, in eds. K. Cheng, D. Webb, and R. Marsh, Advances in e-Engineering and Digital Enterprise Technology, Professional Engineering Publishing United, London, UK.

* This chapter was a conference paper in the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on e-Engineering and Digital Enterprise Technology (e-ENGDET), Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, 1-3 September 2004. Supported by IMechE, IEE, EPSRC.

 

Synopsis

Location-based services (LBS), more than any other mobile commerce application area has served to bring together information technology and telecommunications (IT&T) industries. While much has been written on the potential of LBS, literature on how it is a catalyst for digital convergence is scant. This paper identifies and explores the various levels of converging technologies in mobile commerce by using three LBS case studies. Through literal replication the findings indicate that IT&T technologies are converging at the infrastructure, appliance and application level. It is predicted that mCommerce applications will increasingly rely on industry convergence to achieve their desired outcomes.

1 Introduction

Location-Based Services (LBS) is a branch of m-Commerce that has revolutionised the way people communicate with others or gather timely information based on a given geographic location. Everything living and non-living has a location on the earth’s surface, a longitude and latitude coordinate that can be used to provide a subscriber with a wide range of value added services (VAS). Subscribers can use their mobile phone, personal digital assistant (PDA) or laptop to find information relating to their current location. Typical LBS consumer applications include roadside assistance, who is nearest, where is, and personal navigation. LBS business applications differ in their focus and many are linked to core business challenges such as optimising supply chain management (SCM) and enhancing customer relationship management (CRM). Some of the more prominent LBS business applications include: fleet management (incorporating vehicle navigation), property asset tracking (via air, ship and road) and field service personnel management (i.e. people monitoring). The emergency services sector in the United States (US) was responsible for driving the first pin-point location service, demonstrating to the world the potentially life-saving functionality of the technology. As of October 2003, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) enforced that wireless operators provide the Automatic Location Identification (ALI) of a caller to the emergency dispatcher. ALI standards designate that more than two-thirds of emergency calls received require the location of the individual to be accurate to within 50 metres, and 95 per cent of calls to within 150 metres. The technology is available for potential mass market deployment, how feasible it is however is a separate issue altogether. This paper provides an overview of the devices, applications and technologies used by three companies that offer LBS applications. The overall aim is to show the current state of development in leading edge LBS product innovations and to demonstrate that LBS have served to bring together information technology and telecommunications (IT&T) industries. The first section of the paper reviews previous literature and develops an analytical framework for the investigation; second each LBS product innovation will be examined; and third a discussion on the high-level effects LBS has had on IT&T convergence ensues.


2 Literature Review


2.1 Who, what, when, where & wi-fi?

The evolution of mobile location-based services has been well documented in a paper by Rao and Minakakis (1). This article summarises the platforms, technologies and standards of mobile LBS and does well to differentiate between the various techniques that can be used to determine an accurate location of an object or individual. These techniques include: cell identifier (cell ID), global positioning systems (GPS), assisted global positioning system (aGPS), and the broadband satellite network. Zeimpekis et al. (2) go into more explicit detail about each of these and identify a whole range of indoor and outdoor positioning techniques categorising these into “self positioning” and “remote positioning”. It should also be noted that location technologies can be classified as either handset-based or network-based. Cousins and Varshney (3) provide a brief overview of the location framework required for mobile location services whereas Varshney (4) goes into greater depth for each element in the framework. Balatseng and Hanrahan (5) specifically use the Global System for Mobile (GSM) to describe the logical architecture required to support mobile station positioning. Maass (6) can be credited with an implementation-level paper on location-aware mobile applications based on directory services. Varshney’s (4) paper however stands out from the rest of the literature in that he makes the important connection between the type of service offering and the level of accuracy required. He also includes the wireless LAN (wi-fi) network in the location management architecture, instituting radio frequency identification (RFID) as a significant technology embedded in the LBS framework.

In terms of target markets for LBS, Rao and Minakakis (1) identify three target markets including the consumer, niche consumer/ business, and industrial/ corporate. Cousins and Varshney (3) also separate state-driven applications from those that are business driven which is important when discussing the overall capabilities (present and future) of LBS (7). Typical services specified by most authors range from mapping, directory services, shopping, alerting, SCM, CRM, intelligent transportation, emergency and e-health. These can be applied in any given scenario- Business-to-Consumer (B2C), Business-to-Business (B2B) and even Citizen-to-Government (C2G) relationships. Interestingly the work of Burak and Sharon (8) on FriendZone is among the few analysing usage of a single LBS commercial application. The distinction between push and pull services is also important (4). The FriendZone service is a ‘push’ mode of operation allowing a subscriber to locate friends and acquaintances nearby, whereas checking on the next movie showing closest to a location is an example of a ‘pull’ mode of operation. Some of the more common revenue business models for LBS services include the traditional subscription-based model, pay-per-view, micropayments and application service provider (ASP) facilitator (1).

2.2 The gap in the literature

The gap in the literature is two-fold. First, a paper needs to be written showcasing cutting edge LBS product innovations that reveal the current state of development. A lot of sensational material exists in the popular media about what is possible with LBS but a candid view of billable applications that are being offered now is required. Second, a look at how LBS is spurring on convergence at various levels within IT&T needs to be demonstrated. Traditional telephone companies are no longer the typical service providers (SPs). New business models are changing the rules of engagement between established companies and new entrants who are looking for niche markets. The definite move toward a packet-based solution using Internet Protocol (IP) is also blurring the line between the once easily identifiable carrier-grade applications and enterprise-level offerings. The need to reduce the time-to-market (TTM) for opportune LBS was exemplified during the SARS outbreak in 2003. Hong Kong mobile telephone operator, Sunday, rapidly developed and launched an application that warned subscribers via short message service (SMS) about buildings with confirmed or suspected SARS cases within approximately one kilometre radius of their location.

3 Methodology

The research approach for this paper is exploratory. Multiple case studies will be used to gather evidence to satisfy the two main objectives stated above. The main unit of analysis is the product innovation, and the sub-unit of analysis is the LBS technology used to implement that product innovation. Three US companies have been chosen for this study, each with billable LBS market applications. AT&T Wireless (www.attwireless.com), Wherify Wireless (www.wherifywireless.com) and Applied Digital Solutions (www.adsx.com) offer product innovations that represent the diverse ways that LBS applications can be implemented. The case study protocol is composed of the following questions: What is the product innovation? What are the LBS applications the company can support? When were the company’s LBS services officially launched? Who is the target market? What kind of device(s) is/ are being used by the subscriber? What are the subscriber pricing plans (i.e. connection, monthly, usage fees)? Is it a carrier-grade or enterprise-level application? What is the level of accuracy when locating a subscriber? What do the LBS services require in terms of IT&T? It is the latter question that pertains to showing that LBS is a catalyst to IT&T convergence. In citing Kampas, Chen (9) provides a high-level framework for possible convergence at three separate layers occurring at the infrastructure, appliance and application levels. Chen also describes the notion of “colliding industries” including the communication, electronics, computing and information/ entertainment sectors.

The data gathered by the researcher will be drawn completely from information provided on the company web sites published between the period of April 2002 and April 2004. The online documentation reviewed will typically include: company background, product briefs, application user guides, technical specifications and press releases. In this manner, the method of investigation can be considered wholly e-research (10). External validity is ensured given that the companies are registered on the New York Stock Exchange and must provide factual content to their present and potential subscriber base. The possibility of researcher bias is minimised in this paper given its intent is not to prove that one service is better than another, but to document the current state of development.

4 Case Studies

4.1 Product innovations

4.1.1 The versatile mMode

AT&T Wireless was the first mobile carrier to launch m-Commerce applications in the US in July 2001. Following the success of NTT Docomo’s i-mode and c-mode in Japan, mMode provided a value-added data-centric package to AT&T’s voice and SMS basic plans. Subscribers to mMode can use numerous devices to communicate including IP-enabled phones, PDAs, handhelds and even vertical devices such as the Panasonic Toughbook and Microslate Sidearm. The service is carrier-grade and is based on a GSM network architecture that uses new network elements, namely the Gateway Mobile Location Centre (GMLC), Serving Mobile Location Centre (SMLC), and the Location Measurement Unit (LMU). AT&T Wireless is now rolling out the general packet radio service (GPRS) network and EDGE technology, increasing bandwidth by targeting specific coverage areas as demand increases and it becomes economically justifiable to do so. The accuracy of the specific location-based applications is dependent upon the general location of the mobile transmission tower most recently contacted by the customer’s device. For example, the IP device could be right next to a tower or some fifteen kilometres away. In metropolitan areas the accuracy is greater given the number of base transceiver stations is higher than in less urbanised areas.

4.1.2 The wrist-worn GPS Personal Locator

mMode’s location identification is not pin-point such as in the Wherify Personal Locator solution that is based on a combination of GPS satellites and code division multiple access (CDMA) PCS network triangulation methods. The Personal Locator wrist-worn device is accurate within 30 metres of the wearer, possibly even as close as a metre. The GPS device can be controlled by both the subscriber and individual wearer, allowing the parent subscriber to track the wearer, and for the wearer to alert the parent subscriber and/or location centre headquarters in case of an emergency. Coverage is available throughout the US given the GPS capability but is dependent on the PCS network coverage footprint. The Wherify frequently-asked-questions (FAQs) page (11) states: “[i]f a GPS signal is received, but the Locator is outside the digital wireless coverage area or does not receive a digital wireless signal, no location report will be provided. If the Locator receives a digital wireless signal, but no GPS signal is available, a CDMA tower-based location report will be available for emergencies.” On December 30th 2003, Wherify unveiled its new GPS Universal Locator Phone which is targeted at all age groups of both the consumer and business market.

4.1.3 The VeriChip implant

While mMode requires the subscriber to carry a device, and the Personal Locator requires an individual to wear a device, VeriChip is radical in that it requires the subscriber to be implanted with a microchip (see table 1 for a comparison list of attributes). The campaign to Get Chipped was launched in early 2003, and the first person to do so formally was implanted in September of that year. The chipping procedure only lasts a few minutes. There are a number of Veri centres where the procedure can take place in the US and internationally. There is even a high-tech ChipMobile bus fully equipped to perform the implant procedure, ‘on the road’. Applied Digital Solutions (ADSX) initially invested heavily in another product they called the Digital Angel in 2002, which resembled the Personal Locator solution but aimed at a broader market base than just children. The Digital Angel wristwatch was more slim-line but required the user to carry an additional wallet with battery power. While remnants of the Digital Angel web site are still operational today, it is the VeriChip which has become the flagship product of the VeriChip Corporation (a subsidiary of ADSX). About the size of a grain of rice, the VeriChip is the world’s first subdermal radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchip. According to an ADSX press release (12): “[t]he standard location of the microchip is in the triceps area between the elbow and the shoulder of the right arm.” In theory an implantee could be identified in a wi-fi network, such as in a workplace or university campus. Whereas GPS has limitations in-building locations due to construction materials used, RFID thrives in a local area network (LAN) setting, allowing walkways and door entries to act as scanners. RF energy from the scanner triggers the dormant VeriChip and in turn sends out a signal containing the unique verification number. The exchange of data is transparent and seamless in the case of RFID, there is no need to physically stop to verify a biometric feature- the network is ubiquitous. In another scenario, an individual could be identified by the RFID implant, giving emergency services access to the implantee’s medical data and history that could be potentially life-saving. Unlike other fixed services, m-Commerce applications grant the subscriber access to services twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. In the case of the VeriChip it is not only “always on” but “ever-present” inside the body of the subscriber. Unlike physical biometric attributes, the VeriChip is inconspicuous to the naked eye.

Table 1 LBS product innovations and their attributes

Table 1 LBS product innovations and their attributes

 

4.2 LBS applications

4.2.1 “My mMode: this time it's personal”

mMode is heavily oriented towards the consumer market, although AT&T Wireless also offer package deals to business users specifically for the purposes of email (plus attachments), web access, and remote access. mMode was marketed as the beginning of mLife, next generation services that ‘one could not live without’ (13). Among its mCommerce suite that includes news, music and finance services are a number of LBS solutions (a list of these can be found in table 2). mMode’s LBS applications are diverse- everything from a mobile traffic report to directions ‘to the nearest’ and find people nearby (14). Some of the more creative LBS are chat and date, and travel and dining. There are four plans subscribers can choose from including: mini, mega, max and ultra. The plans are charged monthly ranging from $2.99 to $19.99 USD and include a limited megabytes (MB) download. Additional usage fees are charged at between 2c and 0.6c per extra kilobyte (KB) received or sent, dependent on the plan. These fees do not include voice calls and SMS. The mMode service is bundled allowing the subscriber maximum personalisation to choose from any application they require. The myMode web site allows the subscriber to customise their preferences and settings.

4.2.2 Personal Locator “Just For Kids”

In contrast to AT&T Wireless, Wherify strategically chose to enter the market with a niche LBS application for a Personal Locator Just For Kids, specifically targeted at parents of children between the age of four and twelve. The device previously cost $399 USD but was recently slashed for a “back to school special” to $199. Monthly plans for the LBS application range from an average of $19.95 to $44.95 dependent on the plan chosen (liberty, independence or freedom). There is a one-time activation fee of $35 USD plus usage fees related to additional page requests above the included locates, additional operator assistance calls and subsequent emergency calls. Wherify makes it clear that it is looking to diversify to other niche applications including Alzheimer’s and law enforcement, even though the Locator for Kids is the only marketable application demoed on the web site at the present time (15).

Table 2- Present and future LBS applications as stated on the company web site

Table 2- Present and future LBS applications as stated on the company web site

4.2.3 “Get Chipped” with VeriChip: “technology that cares”

There is little information on the ADSX web site about the pricing of the VeriChip, however it is stated that the global VeriChip subscriber (GVS) registry subscription fee is $9.95 USD monthly. There is a cost for the implant medical procedure as well, although this is not provided. In 2002 the first one hundred pre-registered persons were granted a $50 USD discount on the chipping procedure (16). The pricing for the new VeriPay and VeriGuard services has yet to be published on the WWW and probably will not be given these are typically targeting business-to-business-to-consumer (B2B2C) solutions which are highly complex in design. The “Trusted Traveller” and residential security programs (i.e., prisoners serving their sentence from home) are two examples of VeriGuard LBS applications. One desirable feature of VeriGuard is that it could operate in conjunction with other auto-ID technologies like smart cards and biometrics, rendering customer legacy systems reusable.

4.4 Information technology and telecommunications (IT&T) requirements


4.4.1 mMode: how does it work?

Using the “find people nearby” service, the GSM/ GPRS network works as follows to determine a subscriber’s approximate location. An application request is made by a subscriber. The application server subsequently makes a location request to the gateway mobile location centre (GMLC). The GMLC in turn queries the home location register (HLR) and then contacts the appropriate mobile switching centre (MSC). Another location request is generated to identify the base station controller (BSC) where the mobile is currently using the serving mobile location centre (SMLC). The BSC then can use the location measurement unit (LMU) alongside the appropriate base transceiver stations (BTS) to determine the location of the subscriber by using the uplink time distance of arrival (UTDOA). The location information is then sent back via the above-mentioned pieces of hardware/ software until the message reaches the application server and a response is given to the subscriber. The AT&T Wireless web site provides an excellent facility to aid external developers of mobile solutions (17). Freely available for download are whitepapers, style guides, software development kits (SDK), programming guides, sample code and emulators. In table 3 can be found the major building blocks of the mMode technical solution.

Table 3. The mMode Building Blocks

Table 3. The mMode Building Blocks

AT&T Wireless differs significantly from Wherify and Applied Digital Solutions, given it owns much of its network infrastructure. AT&T Wireless also has a large existing customer base that is used to an excellent quality of service (QoS) and certain level of post sales support. Launching LBS applications nation-wide with potentially tens-of-thousands of new subscribers joining daily, requires equipment that can handle data traffic levels and systems that have been thoroughly tested for faults. mMode contains diverse LBS services- ensuring that each of these works properly and is interoperable with a range of media devices is a labour-intensive activity which is one reason why they have decided to outsource as well.

4.4.2 Personal Locator: all the bits and pieces

Wherify’s location service centre (LSC) is at the heart of its current and pending product innovations. A carrier-class server and software hub, the LSC manages and presents location-based information. Unlike mMode, Wherify utilises wireless data and aGPS. Consider the following scenario where a parent wants to be reassured that their child made it to school alright after missing the bus. The parent requests a location report via the Internet using a Microsoft IE browser (or ringing the toll-free telephone number). The LSC contacts the child’s Personal Locator via the PCS network (if within the footprint), and then downloads the current GPS data and requests a location. Using the data from the LSC, the device that is identified by an electronic serial number (ESN), finds the closest satellite and then computes the longitude and latitude coordinates of the child’s location. The Personal Locator then communicates location information to the LSC and the LSC generates a location report for the parent via the Internet. The whole process from request to report takes about sixty seconds. The parent is able to look at the report visually on a scalable map which shows streets and other feature points in a vector or aerial view, using geographic information systems (GIS) capabilities. Each report requested by the parent is logged in the customer’s event file database for billing and subscriber profiling. The location database includes a time stamp along with the longitude/ latitude coordinates. The wearer’s profile is also stored including: age, gender, height, weight and features.

Wherify make no secret of their technology partners. They include an impressive list of companies: SiRF who provide the GPS chipset that is integrated into the Personal Locator based on a-GPS; Qualcomm for the CDMA chipset; Baldwin Hackett & Meeks who are applications developers, Conexant who provide the RF board; Advanced Micro Systems who specialise in flash memory; Compaq for the server technology; Intrado for emergency communications; and GlobeXplorer Online for the component of aerial photography. Security firewalls are paramount in the Personal Locator system as is redundancy and fault tolerance. During an emergency situation for instance, the LSC is even able to interact with public safety answering points (PSAP) through Wherify’s emergency operation service. There are customer care representatives available 24x7x365.

4.4.3 VeriChip made very easy

The least complex of the three case studies in terms of technology requirements is the VeriChip. RFID networks are usually small in scale when compared to nation-wide or global networks. They include the following components: the RFID transponder, a reader that captures information, an antenna that transmits information, and a computer which interprets or manipulates the information gathered. In the case of VeriChip, there is a requirement that each subscriber registers their personal details (and other relevant information they desire) on the GVS database. At this stage all the transponders issued by VeriChip are passive but it is likely that active transponders will be issued in the future, despite the fact that they require on-board battery power to operate internal electronics. When an individual passes an associated scanner, information is read and sent to the computer via an antenna. Dependent on the application, a log may be retained or the implantee’s location updated a predefined number of times in a set period. Given global standards are an issue for debate in RFID, proprietary systems are used.

5. Discussion


5.1 Defining Convergence

Convergence means different things to different people and is usually loosely applied to denote the coming together of two distinct technologies, i.e. the merging of several products into a single good. The 2003 Penguin Concise Dictionary states that convergence is a “jargon term” and gives examples of the merging of the television (TV) and computer, or telephone and computer, or TV and WWW. To anyone who has studied technological trajectories at any length, convergence is far from being a jargon term, but a well-constituted concept in the field of innovation (18, 19, 20). Terms like “digital convergence”, “technological convergence”, “application convergence” and “industry convergence” have been used interchangeably in some instances, and in others each has carried a loaded meaning. For example, Covell (18) states: “(d)igital convergence is the merging of these improved computing capabilities, new digital multimedia technologies and content, and new digital communications technologies. This combination of computing power and functionality, digital networked interconnectedness, and multimedia capability enables new forms of human interaction, collaboration, and information sharing.” Greenstein and Khanna (20) on the other hand, distinguish between “convergence in substitutes” and “convergence in complements”. The distinction of these ‘kinds’ of convergence finally puts an end to the debate over usage. Convergence thus can occur at any level of detail, in any part of the subsystem.

5.2 LBS: a catalyst for IT&T convergence

Throughout this paper, technologies at the appliance, application and infrastructure level have been shown for each of the LBS cases. What can be seen is a coming together of what were once somewhat unrelated technologies. Most obvious perhaps is the convergence of wireless capabilities and the Internet as depicted in the mMode case. For example, IP-based phones can already receive voice, text and multimedia. And as for the vertical devices mentioned, many of these are converged technologies in themselves (e.g. the wireless PDA that is also a phone and MPEG3 player). In the case of Wherify, the traditional wristwatch has now been turned into a Personal Locator with the aid of a GPS chipset. And chip implants have found there way under the skin of human beings to converge with living tissue- chips once as big as bricks, now smaller in size than a grain of rice.

Yet it is not only at the device level that convergence is occurring. A whole suite of new applications are being created using content from syndicates, once considered to be unrelated. The Yellow Pages directory for instance, used to “find the nearest”, or “the best 10 nightlife” locations as well as providing “shopping discount alerts”. And geographic information systems once used for computer-aided design (CAD), now used to visually represent the geographic location trail of a child, using high resolution aerial photography once synonymous with superior defence intelligence systems. There are even applications like VeriPay that are forecasted to change the way that humans interact with other technologies like automatic teller machines (ATMs). Who needs to carry a card at all? Applications once used solely for businesses purposes, now permeating the consumer market given their cross-functional nature.

At the infrastructure level also, multiple network technologies are being used in tandem to locate subscribers including PCS with aGPS. Another example provided, was the VeriGuard system that will have the capability to incorporate other automatic identification (auto-ID) reader equipment belonging to smart card and biometrics. Even at the protocol level, the very essence of traditional voice calls will be packetised, i.e. voice will be data. It is obvious through the evidence provided in this paper that convergence in complements is occurring, given the products are working better together than separately (20). LBS has shown itself to also involve a diverse range of businesses from vertical and horizontal industries- from independent software vendors (ISVs) developing the applications, to third party suppliers building enabling technologies and platforms, toindustry bodies setting the appropriate standards for communications, to marketing consultants invited to develop and spearhead brand awareness campaigns. LBS brings not only the industries but the technologies to increasingly work together to form larger and larger systems (20).

6 Conclusion

Location-based services are pulling together a vast array of digital technologies like never before. The convergence between technologies is a cultural-changing force. Miniaturisation in design in particular is allowing for once separate technologies to be fused. From handset phones to smart watches to implants, the more invasive the technologies are becoming, the greater the precision for locating the subscriber or wearer or implantee. The question now, that all this technology can be used in an integrated fashion, is how far will entrepreneurs take LBS in the future? How many different players can become involved in offering LBS specifically before the state of affairs becomes too cluttered and confused? Do content providers reach mutually exclusive agreements with service providers (SPs) so that there is minimal conflict of interest? And if so, does this not limit the number of SPs to a few large players that can actually deliver LBS? And how many different types of LBS can one service provider practically offer? Looking at the dilemma from another perspective- will consumers require subscription to mMode, the Personal Locator and the VeriChip solution and carry with them a PDA, wear a GPS watch and be implanted with a chip, to circumvent a variety of limitations of each technology? Or are future directions set on a trajectory of even greater convergence proportions between all of the technologies discussed in this paper. For instance, will one device be able to cater for the needs at each level of accuracy- global, national, regional, local and in-building or will service providers amalgamate their networks to offer super-LBS services from satellite-based to network-based to LAN-based and PAN-based. Whatever the outcome, we are surely entering into a period where pervasive computing will become a dominant force in the way we live, work, and interact with one another.

7 References

(1) B. Rao & L. Minakakis, 2003, “EVOLUTION of Mobile Location-Based Services”, Communications of the ACM, 46(12), December, pp. 61-65.

(2) V. Zeimpekis et al., 2003, “A Taxonomy of Indoor and Outdoor Positioning Techniques for Mobile Location Services”, Journal of ACM SIGecom Exchanges, 3(4), pp. 19-27.

(3) K. Cousins & U. Varshney, 2001, “A Product Location Framework for Mobile Commerce Environment”, Proc. ACM 1st International Conference on Mobile Commerce, pp. 43-47.

(4) U. Varshney, 2003, ‘Location Management for Mobile Commerce Applications in Wireless Internet Environment’, ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 3(3), August, pp. 236-255.

(5) O.E. Balatseng & H.E. Hanrahan, 2002, ‘MS Positioning for the Support of Mobile Location Services’, [http://www.ee.wits.ac.za/~comms/output/satnac02/balatseng.doc, 2004].

(6) H. Maass, 1998, ‘Location-aware Mobile Applications Based on Directory Services’, Mobile Networks and Applications, 3, pp. 157-173.

(7) H.M. Deitel et al., 2001, e-Business and e-Commerce for Managers, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, p. 168-170.

(8) A. Burak & T. Sharon, 2003, ‘Analysing Usage of Location Based Services’, CHI 2003: New Horizons, April 5-10, Florida, USA, pp. 970-971.

(9) S. Chen, 2001, Strategic Management of e-Business, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 5-7.

(10) T. Anderson & H. Kanuka, 2003, E-research: methods, strategies, and issues, Allyn and Bacon, Boston.

(11) Wherify, 2004, “Frequently Asked Questions”, Wherify Wireless, [http://www.wherifywireless.com/faq.asp, Last Accessed: 15 April 2004].

(12) ADSX, 21 November 2003, “Applied Digital Solutions’ CEO Announces “VeriPay™” Secure Subdermal Solution for Payment and Credit Transactions at ID World 2003 in Paris”, Applied Digital Solutions, [http://www.adsx.com/news/2003/112103.html, Last Accessed: 15 April 2004].

(13) B. McDonough, 17 April 2002, “AT&T Wireless Pushes mLife with mMode”, CIO Today, [http://cio-today.newsfactor.com/perl/story/17307.html, Last Accessed: 6 April 2004].

(14) AT&T, 2003, “Feature and Services User Guide”, AT&T Wireless, [http://www.attwireless.com/personal/features/mmode/mmode_guide.jhtml, Last Accessed: 15 April 2004], pp. 1-39.

(15) Wherify, 2003, “Wherify Wireless GPS Locator For Kids”, Wherify Wireless, [http://www.wherifywireless.com/prod_watches.htm, Last Accessed: 15 April 2004], pp. 1-120.

(16) ADSX, 2003, “Implantable Personal Verification Systems”, Applied Digital Solutions, [http://www.adsx.com/prodservpart/verichip.html, Last Accessed 15 April 2004], pp. 1-2.

(17) AT&T, 2003, “Developer Tools”, AT&T Wireless, [http://www.attwireless.com/ developer/tools/, Last Accessed: 15 April 2004].

(18) A. Covell, 2000, Digital Convergence: how the merging of computers, communications, and multimedia is transforming our lives, Aegis Publishing Group, Rhode Island, p. 14.

(19) T.F. Baldwin et al., 1996, CONVERGENCE: integrating media, information & communication, Sage Publications, California, p. 209.

(20) S. Greenstein & T. Khanna, 1997, “What Does Industry Convergence Mean?” in D.B. Yoffie (ed.), Competing in the Age of Digital Convergence, Harvard Business School Press, USA, pp. 204.

8 Acknowledgements

The author is currently involved in collaborative work with Nortel Networks on the theme of the Mobile Location Centre (MLC).

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