Assessing technology system contributions to urban dweller vulnerabilities

Lindsay J. Robertson+, Katina Michael+, Albert Munoz#

+ School of Computing and Information Technology, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, NSW 2522, Australia

# School of Management and Marketing, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, NSW 2522, Australia

Received 26 March 2017, Revised 16 May 2017, Accepted 18 May 2017, Available online 19 May 2017


• Individual urban-dwellers have significant vulnerabilities to technological systems.

• The ‘exposure’ of a technological system can be derived from its configuration.

• Analysis of system ‘exposure’ allows valuable insights into vulnerability and its reduction.


Urban dwellers are increasingly vulnerable to failures of technological systems that supply them with goods and services. Extant techniques for the analysis of those technological systems, although valuable, do not adequately quantify particular vulnerabilities. This study explores the significance of weaknesses within technological systems and proposes a metric of “exposure”, which is shown to represent the vulnerability contributed by the technological system to the end-user. The measure thus contributes to the theory and practice of vulnerability reduction. The results suggest specific and general conclusions.


Technological vulnerability; Exposure; Urban individual; Risk


L Robertson is a professional engineer with a range of interests, including researching the level and causes of vulnerability that common technologies incur for individual end-users.

Dr Katina Michael, SMIEEE, is a professor in the School of Computing and Information Technology at the University of Wollongong. She has a BIT (UTS), MTransCrimPrev (UOW), and a PhD (UOW). She previously worked for Nortel Networks as a senior network and business planner until December 2002. Katina is a senior member of the IEEE Society on the Social Implications of Technology where she has edited IEEE Technology and Society Magazine for the last 5+ years.

Albert Munoz is a Lecturer in the school of management, operations & marketing, at the Faculty of Business at the University of Wollongong. Albert holds a PhD in Supply Chain Management from the University of Wollongong. His research interests centre on experimentation with systems under uncertain conditions, typically using discrete event and system dynamics simulations of manufacturing systems and supply chains.