The Auto-ID Trajectory - Acronyms


Acronyms and Abbreviations

2G                   Second Generation

3G                   Third Generation

4G                   Fourth Generation

AA                   Aluminium Association

AATA              American Air Transport Association

ABA                American Banking Association

ABC                American Blood Commission

ABS                 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrol (see smart cards)

ADC                Automatic Data Capture

ADFA              Australian Defence Force Academy

ADS                 * see ADSX

ADSX             Applied Digital Solutions

AfB                 Association for Biometrics

AFDC              Aid to Families with Dependent Children

AFIM               Automated Fingerprint Recognition Machine

AFIS                Automated Fingerprint Identification System (see NAFIS also)

AFIRM                        Automated Fingerprint Image Reporting and Match

AFMA             American Furniture Manufacturers Association

AFPA               Australian Federal Police Association

AGV                Automated Guided Vehicles

AHMA             American Hardware Manufacturers Association

AI                    Application Identifier (bar code standards)

AI                    Artificial Intelligence

AIAG               Automotive Industry Action Group

AIDC               Automatic Identification and Data Collection

AIM                 Advanced Informatics Medicine (in the Europe)

AIM                 Automatic Identification Manufacturers (in auto-ID)

ALS                 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

AMD               Aged Macular Degeneration

AMEX             American Express

ANA                Article Numbering Association

ANSI               American National Standards Institute

APA                 American Pet Association

APACS                        Association of Payment and Clearing Services

API                  Application Programming Interface (see standards)

API                  Automatic Personal Identification (see auto-ID)

API                  American Paper Institute (bar code industry association)

APRIL             Army Personnel Rationalisation Individual Listings (in Britain)

APSCF             Asia Pacific Smart Card Forum

AR                   Augmented Reality

ARPA              Advanced Research Projects Agency (see ARPANET also)

ARPANET       Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

ASCII              American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASK                 Amplitude Shift Keying

ASR                 Artificial Silicon Retina

ATA                Air Transport Authority (see IATA also)

ATA                American Trucking Association

ATM                Automatic Teller Machine

AVID               American Veterinary Identification Devices

AVIS               Automotive Vehicle Identification System

Auto-ID           Automatic Identification

BACS              Bankers Automated Clearing Services (in U.K.)

BART              Bay Area Rapid Transport (in San Francisco)

BCC                 Border Crossing Card (in U.S./ Mexico)

BCD                Binary Coded Decimal

BCI                  Brain Computer Interaction

BHSUG           Biometrics in Human Service User Group

BIOTEST         Biometric Testing Services

bit                    binary digit

bpi                   Bits per Inch

BS                    Base Station

BSE                 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

BSI                  British Standards Institute

BT                   British Telecom

BWG               Bar Width Growth

C2G                 Citizen-to-Government

CAD                Computer-Aided Design

CAFE               Conditional Access for Europe

CANPASS       Canadian Passenger Accelerated Service System

CAO                County Assistance Offices (in U.S.)

CATV              Cable Television

CBA                Canadian Bankers Association

CBD                Central Business District

CBDC              Commercial Biometrics Developer’s Consortium

CBEFF             Common Biometric Exchange File Format

CCD                Charge-Coupled Device

CCMIS             Chip Card-based Medical Information System

CCTV              Closed Circuit Television

CD                   Cash Dispensers

CDMA                         Code Division Multiple Access

CDSA              Common Data Security Architecture

CEC                 Chip Electronic Commerce

CEN                 Comité Européen de Normalisation

CENELEC       European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation

CEPS               Common Electronic Purse Specifications

CEPT               Conférence Européene de Postes et Télécommunications

CFIP                Code of Fair Information Practice

ch.                   chapter

CHIPS              Clearinghouse Interbank Payment System

CIBC               Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce

CITeR              Centre for Identification Technology Research

CITI                 Centre for Information Technology Integration

CJIS                 Criminal Justice Information Services

COS                 Card Operating System

CPR                 Central Population Register

CPU                 Central Processing Unit

CRC                 Cyclic Redundancy Check

CRM                Customer Relationship Management

CRP                 Central Register of Persons (Denmark)

CS                    Composite Symbology

CTO                 Chief Technology Officer

CVM                Centre for Veterinary Medicine

DARPA           Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DCC                Distribution Code Centre

DCS                 Digital Communication Services (also Digital Cellular System)

DECT              Digital European Cordless Telephone

DERA              Defence Evaluation Research Agency (in UK)

DNA                deoxyribonucleic acid

DNI                 Documento Nacional de Identidad (Argentina)

DOD                Department of Defence

dpi                   dots per inch

DPSS               Department of Public Social Services

DSD                 Direct Store Delivery

DSS                 Department of Social Services (in U.S.)

DTE                 Data Terminal Equipment

DTR                 Data Transfer Rate

E-cash              Electronic Cash

E-commerce    Electronic Commerce

EAN                European Article Number

EAS                 Electronic Article Surveillance

EBT                 Electronic Benefits Transfer

EC                   Electronic Commerce

ECA                 Electronic Commerce Association

EDI                  Electronic Data Interchange

EDP                 Electronic Data Processing

EEG                 Electroencephalogram

EEPROM         Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

EER                 Equal Error Rate

EFT                  Electronic Funds Transfer (see EFTPOS also)

EFTS                Electronic Funds Transfer Systems

EFTPOS           Electronic Funds Transfer at the Point of Sale

EIA                  Electronics Industry Association

EIN                  Event Identification Number (Peru)

ELP                  Evaluated List of Products

EMI                 Electromagnetic Interference

EMV                Europay, MasterCard, and Visa

ENIAC             Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

EPC                 Electronic Product Code

EPS                  Electronic Payment System

ERMS              Electronic Management System (in Britain)

ERP                 Enterprise Resource Planning (in manufacturing)

ERP                 Electronic Road Pricing (in Singapore)

ESP                  Extra Sensory Perception

ETSI                European Telecommunications Standards Institute

ETTS               European Transport & Telematics Systems

EU                   European Union

FACT               Federation of Automated Coding Technologies

FAQ                 Frequently Asked Questions

FAR                 False Accept Error Rate

FBI                  Federal Bureau of Investigation

FCC                 Federal Communications Commission (in U.S.)

FDA                 Food and Drug Administration (in U.S.)

FedWire           Federal Reserve System

FIN                  French Identification Number

FNMT              Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre

FPA                 Flexible Packaging Association

FRAM              Ferroelectric Random Access Memory

FREFLEX        Force Reflecting Exoskeleton

FRR                 False Reject Error Rate

FSK                 Frequency Shift Keying

FSU                 Florida State University

ft                      footnote

FTC                 Financial Transaction Card

FTC                 Federal Trade Commission (see bar codes)

FTTC               Fibre to the Curb

FTTN               Fibre to the Neighbourhood

GA                   General Assistance

GAO                General Accounting Office (in U.S.)

GCA                Graphic Communications Association

GHz                 Gigahertz

GIN                 German Insurance Number

GIS                  Geographic Information Systems

GMA               Grocery Manufacturers of America

GMS                Generalised Matching Service (in U.K.)

GP                   General Practitioner

GPRS               General Packet Radio Service

GPS                 Global Positioning System

GR                   General Relief

GSM                Global System for Mobile Communications

HA-API           Human Authentication Application Programming Interface

HCI                  Human-Computer Interaction 

Hex                  Hexadecimal

HIBCC             Health Industry Business Communication Council

HIC                  Health Insurance Commission (in Australia)

hico                 High Coercivity

high-tech          High Technology

HP                   Hewlett-Packard

HRS                 Human Recognition Services (in biometrics)

HRV                Heart Rate Variability

HTML              Hypertext Markup Language

IACT               Information and Communication Technology

IAFIS               Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System

IAI                   International Association for Identification

IATA               International Air Transport Association

IBIA                International Biometric Association

IBG                  International Biometric Group

IC                    Integrated Circuit

ICC                  Integrated Circuit Card (see IC also)

ICMA              International Card Manufacturers Association

ICSA                International Computer Security Association (in U.S.)

ID                    Identity; Identification

IDEA               Identification Electronique des Animaux (in Europe)

iDTV               Interactive Digital Television

IEC                  International Electronic Commission

IGSANS           Integrated Global Surveillance And Navigation System

IMI                  Information Management Institute

IN                    Identification Number; Insurance Number

INCITS                        InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards

INS                  Immigration & Naturalisation Service (see INSPASS also)

INSPASS         Immigration, Naturalisation Service Passenger Accelerated Service System

I/O                   Input/Output

IP                     Intellectual Property (in patents)

IP                     Internet Protocol

IPN                  Insured Persons Number (Switzerland)

IPRP                Information Policy Research Program

IR                    Infrared

IRR                  Internal Rate of Return

IRS                  Internal Revenue Service

IS                     International Standard

IS                     Information System

ISBN                International Standard Book Number

ISO                  International Standards Organisation

ISP                   Internet Service Provider

ISV                  Independent Software Vendor

IT                     Information Technology

ITL                  Information Technology Laboratory

IT&T               Information Technology and Telecommunications

IVHS               Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems

IVR                  Interactive Voice Response

JIT                   Just-in-Time

JTC                  Joint Technical Committee

kHz                  Kilohertz

LAN                Local Area Network

LDC                 Lesser Developed Countries

LED                 Light Emitting Diode

LERTS             Leicester Environmental Road Tolling Scheme

LIS                   Local Innovation Systems

loco                 Low Coercivity

LOGMARS      Logistic Applications of Automated Marking and Reading Symbols

LoS                  line-of-sight

LT                    London Transit

m                     metres

MAPS              Multimodal Access and Payment System (in transport)

MARC             Multi-technology Automated Reader Card

MDC                More Developed Countries

MEL                MULTOS Executable Language

MEMA             Motor & Equipment Manufacturing Association

MEMS             Microelectromechanical Systems

MFC                MultiFunction Card (IBM™)

mHz                 Megahertz

MICR               Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition

MIQR              Minimum Image Quality Requirements

MISC               Magnetics and Information Science Centre

MIT                 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MLI                 Multiple Laser Image

mm                  Millimetres

MMS                Multimedia Messaging Service

MPEG-3           Moving Picture Experts Group-3

MRT                Mass Rapid Transport (in H.K.)

ms                    milliseconds

N-Geners         Net Generation

NAB                National Australia Bank

NAFIS             National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (in U.K., see AFIS also)

NAO                National Audit Office (in U.K.)

NATO              North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

NC                   Numerically Controlled

NCP                 National ChipCard Platform (NCP)

NCS                 National Cash Service (in Japan)

NCSA              National Computer Security Association

NEMA             National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association

NETS               Network for Electronic Transfer

NGN                Next Generation Networks

NIC                  Newly Industrialised Countries

NIH                 National Institute of Health (in the U.S.)

NIN                 National Identification Number (in U.K.)

NIS                  National Innovation Systems

NOPA              National Office Products Association

NPV                 Net Present Value

NRI                  National Registry Incorporated

NSA                 National Security Agency

OCR                Optical Character Recognition

ODETTE          Organisation for Data Exchange by Tele Transmission in Europe

Oe                    Oersted

OEM                Original Equipment Manufacturers

OPCC              Optical Product Code Council

OS                   Operating System

OTP                 One-Time Programmable

PAM                Pulse Amplitude Modulation

PAN                 Personal Area Network

PAN                 Primary Account Number (in magnetic-stripe cards)

PARIS              Pennsylvania Automated Recipient Identification System

PBS                  Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (in Australia)

PC                    Personal Computer

PC                    Polycarbonate (see smart cards)

PCM                Pulse Coded Modulation

PCMCIA          PC Memory Card Industry Association

PCN                 Personal Communications Network

PCR                 Polymarase Chain Reaction (in silicon)

PCS                  Personal Communications Services

PDA                 Personal Digital Assistant

PDF                 Portable Data File

PERS               Personal Emergency Response System

PET                  Polyethylene Terephthalate (see smart cards)

PIC                  Personal Identification Code (Finland)

PID/SS             Personal ID for Social Services

PIN                  Personal Identification Number

PIT                   Passive Integrated Transponder (see Biomark)

PITO                Police Information Technology Organisation (in U.K.)

PKI                  Public-key Infrastructure

PLC                 Programmable Controllers

PLD                 Personal Location Device (for microchip implants)

PN                   Person Number (Norway, Sweden)

PNN                 Police National Network (in U.K.)

PORTPASS      Port Passenger Accelerated Service System

POS                 Point of Sale (see EFTPOS also)

PR                    Public Relations

PSAM             Purchase Secure Application Modules

PSK                 Phase Shift Keying

PTT                  Post Telephone and Telegraph

PVC                 Polyvinyl Chloride

PVV                 PIN Verification Value

PWM               Pulse Width Modulation

QR                   Quick Response

R&D                Research and Development

RAM                Random Access Memory

RAS                 Remote Access Server

RF                    Radio Frequency

RF/DC             Radio Frequency Data Communication

RFI                  Request for Information (in tender process, see also RFP)

RFI                  Radio Frequency Interference

RF/ID               Radio Frequency Identification (also known as RFID)

RFP                  Request for Proposal

ROI                  Return on Investment

ROM                Read Only Memory

RP                    Retinitis Pigmentosa

RSI                  Repetitive Strain Injury

RSS                  Reduced Space Symbology

RTA                 Roads and Traffic Authority (in Australia)

RTLS               Real-Time Locating System (see WhereNet)

RUN                Rol Unico Nacional (in Chile)

SAN                 Social Account Number (in Austria)

SARS               Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

SC                    Smart Card

SC                    Sub-committee

SCF                  Smart Card Forum

SCIA                Smart Card Industry Association

sci-fi                Science Fiction

SCM                Supply Chain Management

SDK                 Software Development Kit

SEIS                 Secured Electronic Information in Society

SEMP               Sociedad Espanola de Medios de Pago

SER                 Substitution Error Rate

SET                  Secure Electronic Transaction

SIBS                Sociedade Interbancaria de Servicos

SI                     Systems of Innovation

SIA                  Security Industry Association (in U.S.)

SIB                  Sociedade Interbancaria de Servicos

SIM                  Subscriber Identity Module (see UIM also)

SIN                  Single Identifying Number

SIP                   Session Initiation Protocol

SIS                   Sectoral Innovation Systems

SMS                 Short Message Service

SP                    Service Provider

SRD                 Short Range Devices (in RF/ID)

SSA                 Social Security Administration (in U.S.)

SSCC               Serialised Shipping Container Code

SSN                 Social Security Number (in U.S.)

SST                  Social Shaping of Technology

STAC               Symbol Technical Advisory Committee

SUI                  Standard Universal Identifier

SVAPI             Speaker Verification Application Programming Interface

SVC                 Stored Value Card

SWIFT             Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications

TA                   Technology Assessment

TAB                 Tape Automated Bonding (see smart cards)

TAFE               Tertiary And Further Education

TAPA              Terminal Architecture for PSAM Applications (see PSAM also)

TASS               Tarjeta de la Seguridad Social Espanola (in Spain)

TC                   Technical Committee

TDI                  Teledensity Index

TDMA             Time Division Multiple Access

TFN                 Tax File Number (in Australia)

TIN                  Taxpayer Identification Number (in U.S.)

TIRIS               Texas Instruments' Registration & Identification System

TS                    Technological Systems

U-M                 University of Michigan Card

UCC                Uniform Code Council (see also UPCC)

UCC                Uniform Commercial Code (in U.S. legal)

UEPS               Universal Electronic Payment System

UGPCC            Uniform Grocery Product Code Council

UID                 Universal Identifiers

UIM                 User Identity Module (see SIM also)

UIN                 Universal Identification Number

UIS                  Unique Identification System

ULI                  Unique Lifetime Identifier; Universal Lifetime Identifier

UMI                 Universal Multipurpose Identifier

UMTS              Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

UPC                 Universal Personal Communications (see UPT)

UPC                 Universal Product Code

UPCC              Universal Product Code Council

UPI                  Unique Personal Identifier

UPIM               Uniform Personal Identification Mark

UPN                 Universal Personal Number

UPT                 Universal Personal Telecommunications (known as UPC also)

V                     Volts

VAR                Value-added Reseller

VAS                 Value-added Services

VGA                Video Graphics Adaptor

VICS                Voluntary Inter-Industry Communications Standards

VOD                Video-on-Demand

VPN                 Virtual Private Network

VR                   Virtual Reality

VWPP              Visa Waiver Pilot Program (in biometrics)

WISE               Wireless and Internet Infrastructure Software Environment (see Xmarc)

WMATA          Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

WPAN             Wireless Personal Area Network

WWII               World War Two

WWW              World Wide Web

dded Reseller

VAS                 Value-added Services

VGA                Video Graphics Adaptor

VICS                Voluntary Inter-Industry Communications Standards

VOD                Video-on-Demand

VPN                 Virtual Private Network

VR                   Virtual Reality

VWPP              Visa Waiver Pilot Program (in biometrics)

WISE               Wireless and Internet Infrastructure Software Environment (see Xmarc)

WMATA          Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

WPAN             Wireless Personal Area Network

WWII               World War Two

WWW              World Wide Web