When Cameras can Hear and See: The Implications of Behavioural Biometrics

Ms Jennifer Luu is a student at the University of Technology, Sydney completing a Bachelor of Journalism. She also has begun producing stories at 2SER. I am appreciative that our interview on behavioural biometrics was recorded and transcribed by Jennifer herself. Above an audio download, and the full transcription available here.

Personal Information Entrusted to Government Leaked to the Public

Podcast available here 

Centrelink and Veterans Leak Sources:

Summary

https://theconversation.com/how-the-law-allows-governments-to-publish-your-private-information-74304

Robo-Debt

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-21/how-centrelink-can-win-back-trust-after-the-robo-debt-debacle/8372788

http://www.canberratimes.com.au/national/public-service/centrelink-robodebt-government-pledges-fairer-deal-after-backlash-20170214-gucz6t.html

http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/centrelinks-robodebt-creating-a-climate-of-fear-20170307-gut1z7.html

http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/not-good-enough-labor-slams-centrelink-robodebt-changes-20170215-guda4r.html

Centrelink Leak

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-02-28/watchdog-inquiries-after-centrelink-leaked-personal-information/8310034

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-03/centrelink-debt:-senate-concerned-about-impact-of-dhs-releases/8321478

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-01/centrelink-clients-advised-personal-information-no-longer-safe/8313924

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-01-17/labor-calls-for-suspension-of-centrelink-debt-recovery-program/8187934

https://www.businessinsider.com.au/centrelinks-crude-new-data-matching-system-falsely-claims-people-owe-large-amounts-of-money-2017-1

Veterans Leak

http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/latest-news/labor-backs-law-on-veteran-information/news-story/3b639743bd77dc5cb83337e075e30fd8http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-02/government-wants-new-power-to-release-veterans-personal-info/8320268

http://www.news.com.au/national/politics/personal-medical-and-financial-documents-leaked-by-vets-affairs/news-story/bcdd3410b497f4175bb02faa77f9616e

http://www.illawarramercury.com.au/story/4519232/veterans-anger-over-personal-information-laws-prompt-privacy-review/?cs=12

Laws

Privacy Act 1998 Overview https://www.oaic.gov.au/privacy-law/privacy-act/

Privacy Act 1998 Quick Ref. https://www.oaic.gov.au/agencies-and-organisations/guides/app-quick-reference-tool#toc

Social Security Act 1991 http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ssa1991186/

Veterans Affairs Legislation Amendment (Digital Readiness and Other Measures Bill 2017) http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=r5771

Data matching program: https://www.humanservices.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/co050-200710-1105en.pdf

Australian Privacy Principles include:

APP 1 — Open and transparent management of personal information

APP 2 — Anonymity and pseudonymity

APP 3 — Collection of solicited personal information

APP 4 — Dealing with unsolicited personal information

APP 5 — Notification of the collection of personal information

APP 6 — Use or disclosure of personal information

APP 7 — Direct marketing

APP 8 — Cross-border disclosure of personal information

APP 9 — Adoption, use or disclosure of government related identifiers

APP 10 — Quality of personal information

APP 11 — Security of personal information

APP 12 — Access to personal information

APP 13 — Correction of personal information

 

Citation: Katina Michael speaks with Trevor Chappell "The release of personal files from Centrelink and Veterans Affairs to journalists recently and some of the ramifications of this", ABC Radio - Overnights http://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/overnights/. Producer Michael Pavlich. 4.20am-5am, 22 March 2017.

Dashcams Used to Gather Evidence of Adverse Driver Behaviour: Police Encourage Reporting by Citizen

dashcams.jpg

Dashcams are proliferating. In some states of Australia, more than 10% of vehicles are fitted with this technology, and about 50% more want it. There has been a boom of followers of dashcam data, one Facebook site has about 200K members. Police in some states are encouraging people to store data that might be used toward prosecuting those involved in adverse driving behaviour, while in other states like Victoria, police are more circumspect about the use of dashcams and body-worn video recorders. Cameras can have an equiveillance effect, power by police is countered by citizen power through crowdsourced sousveillance. Yet, while footage might have been recorded, it is not always readily available given records management cycles and the like. It becomes particularly unappealing when law enforcement do not hand over important data on its officers, and the whole purpose of data retention comes into question. Complaints against officers have allegedly decreased as a result of body worn video recorders used by police forces, and evidence for the "use of force" by police have been supported by camera evidence. However, visual data is not unbiased as most would have it believe. It is contextual and like any data it can be used to misrepresent cases.

Tim Holt and Katina Michael. January 31, 2015, "Dashcams Used to Gather Evidence of Adverse Driver Behaviour: Police Encourage Reporting by Citizens" ABC South East NSW Radio: Mornings with Tim Holt (2015), Available at: http://works.bepress.com/kmichael/516/

Are disaster early warnings effective?

Key Link

Authors

Kerri WorthingtonSBS Radio
Katina MichaelUniversity of Wollongong
Peter JohnsonARUP
Paul BarnesQueensland University of Technology

Article comments

Details can be found here: http://www.sbs.com.au/podcasts/Podcasts/radionews/episode/251657/Are-disaster-early-warnings-effective

Abstract

emergency-alert-2.jpg

Australia's summer is traditionally a time of heightened preparation for natural disasters, with cyclones and floods menacing the north and bushfires a constant threat in the south. And the prospect of more frequent, and more intense, disasters thanks to climate change has brought the need for an effective early warning system to the forefront of policy-making. Technological advances and improved telecommunication systems have raised expectations that warning of disasters will come early enough to keep people safe. But are those expectations too high? Kerri Worthington reports.

Increasingly, the world's governments -- and their citizens -- rely on technology-based early warning systems to give sufficient notice to prepare for disaster. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami that killed well over a quarter of a million people led to the establishment of an early warning system for countries bordering the ocean. Last year, Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono praised the system for warning people to prepare for a possible tsunami after an 8.6 magnitude quake in the ocean floor northwest of the country. Japan's years of preparedness is also credited for saving lives in the 2011 earthquake and subsequent tsunami.

In Australia, the Federal Government has instigated an 'all-hazards' approach to early warnings, including terrorist acts as well as natural disasters, in the wake of a number of international terrorist attacks that affected Australians. Professor Katina Michael of the University of Wollongong specialises in technologies used for national security. Professor Michael has praised Australia's location-based national emergency warning system which allows service providers to reach people in hazardous or disaster areas, locating them through their mobile devices. "And that's a real new innovation for the Australian capability which I think is among the first in the world to actually venture into that mandated approach to location warning of individuals. And this allows people who are visiting a location, maybe working in a location they're not residing in, or maybe enjoying recreation activities in a location to be warned about a hazard." But there are concerns those systems can breed complacency.

Peter Johnson is a fellow at Arup, a global firm of designers, planners, engineers and technical specialists. "There is a concern about people in communities being too reliant just on official warnings to trigger actions. There's people in the community who think 'well I don't need to do anything, I just have to wait and someone will tell me what to do' and ignore the personal responsibility for their response and actions, so that's an issue. There's another issue about official warnings in some cases may come too late in flash floods or days of very high fire danger and rapid spread."

Mr Johnson says warnings need to be timely and relevant, with minimal false alarms to avoid 'warning fatigue', where people ignore alerts. That's an issue Victoria's County Fire Authority is currently grappling with. It's come under criticism after hundreds of people reported its FireReady app for mobile devices that gives location of fires and fire conditions, has proven to be unreliable. Many Victorians are anxious about early warning of impending fires, after many were taken by surprise -- with some fatal consequences -- in the Black Saturday fires of 2009. Fire experts say it's important not to rely only on one source of information for disaster warnings. And Peter Johnson says government bodies need to set warnings within an overall emergency management context. "We need the risk knowledge, we need the planning, the pre-event information and the broad season warnings and alerting us to days of flooding or total fire ban. Equally we need to understand, and probably better understand, the response of people and communities to those warnings and what actions are taking place."

Paul Barnes, the coordinator of the Risk and Crisis Management Research Domain at the Queensland University of Technology, agrees early warning policies need to be part of a broader risk and hazard communication capability. "When we have natural and socio-technical disasters often we start with the natural phenomena, the natural threat. We had seismic activity, earthquakes in Japan, bushfires, flooding in Australia. But very quickly the impacts from that initial source impact on technical hazards, technical issues, so we lose infrastructure systems, we lose telephony. We also therefore have, in some cases, biological problems in terms of water supply being contaminated." Dr Barnes says often what starts out to be one type of problem quickly cascades into others, and information about ongoing issues needs to be communicated to the public. "Once the initial event occurs, there will be an ongoing need to have continuing types of information flow to the public about cascading elements and the connective elements of these sorts of impacts as they go through time. So the basic principle of the complexity of the situation and matching the sophistication and adaptability of information that needs to go to the public, and also those not affected -- emergency responders, government officials, etc -- is a very complex situation that requires some very sophisticated application of thinking."

Suggested Citation

Kerri Worthington, Katina Michael, Peter Johnson, and Paul Barnes. "Are disaster early warnings effective?" SBS Radio: World News Jan. 2013. Available at: http://works.bepress.com/kmichael/318

Fraud hits Facebook - Users exposed to identity theft

MILLIONS of Facebook users are having their personal details bought and sold online for as little as $5, exposing them to fraud, spam and identity theft.

For about the cost of a McDonald's Happy Meal, internet users can download the details of millions of Facebook users including their full names, email addresses and a link to their profiles.

One list obtained by The Sunday Mail contained the details of dozens of Australian Facebook accounts, including one with an Australian Federal Police email address and another from a major Australian newspaper.

The breach, discovered by a Czech blogger, has raised alarm bells with privacy experts, who have warned the information could be used by scammers to commit fraud or steal users' identities.

Some Queenslanders on the list had profiles that were completely open and contained sensitive private information including their birth date, home town, workplace and family relations.

One Gold Coast Facebook user who appears on the list told The Sunday Mail she was disturbed to find her personal details being traded for money online, particularly since her email address was not listed publicly on Facebook.

Australian Privacy Foundation vice-chairman David Vaile said Facebook profiles contained a ``massive honey pot'' of personal data, and it wasn't surprising to see such information leak out given the company's shifting privacy settings. He said the details contained on the list could form a ``reliable starting framework'' for identity theft and fraud.

University of Wollongong information systems expert associate professor Katina Michael said trading such data for money was a crime, but the $5 price tag was designed to expand the customer base while keeping sales under the police radar.

In a statement, a Facebook spokeswoman said the company had launched an investigation.

anthony.gough@news.com.au

Citation: Anthony Gough, November 18, 2012, "Fraud hits Facebook - Users exposed to identity theft", The Sunday Mail, p. 42.