Would you Microchip Your Hand?

Description: Katina Michael - Professor at the School of Computing and Information Technology at the University of Wollongong - chats to Trevor Long and Nick Bennett on Talking Technology about the ethical implications of Swedish workers getting RFID tags inserted into their hands to give them access to doors and photocopiers at work.

Source here

Citation: Katina Michael with Trevor Long and Nick Bennett, April 7, 2017, "Would You Microchip Your Hand", Talking Technology, Talking Lifestyle, https://omny.fm/shows/talking-technology/would-you-micro-chip-your-hand, Macquarie Media Ltd.

The Easy Hack To Boost Your Mental Health

"Cutting back on screen time can have mind-based benefits. “If Fitbits are the answer to improving our physical health, AntiSocial is the app for our mental health,” says online addiction expert Professor Katina Michael, from Wollongong University. “It exists to help people be mindful of their phone usage and hopefully it will encourage people to reflect on their personal goals and patterns of interaction with others in their physical surrounds.”

More here

Who Can Watch Whom Under the Law?

Who can watch whom under the law? Is it ethical to release CCTV footage to to the public? What comes first, citizen privacy or state protection? These are all questions that have come up in the wake of the exposure of the Don Dale Youth Detention Centre. As the Royal Commission into the matter begins, we are left wondering what further exposure may reveal. This raises the ethical question of whether or not CCTV footage is ethical and how its role within society can affect individuals. However the ethics and laws around CCTV footage remain murky. Dr Katina Michael, professor from the School of Computing and Information Technology at the University of Wollongong, joined us on the show to discuss these issues. 

Produced by Brooke Taylor and Annie Lewis

Katina Michael with Sean Britten, August 15, 2106, "Who can watch whom under the law?", 2SERFM, http://www.2ser.com/component/k2/item/24188-who-can-watch-whom-under-the-law

Más cerca los chips implantados en humanos

Disclaimer: The author of this article did not contact me for a statement.

The article is all over the place. I include it here, as a representative article alone, of a whole genre of articles that deals with Obamacare, identity technologies over time, and much more.

 

In Spanish:

Más cerca los chips implantados en humanos

El nuevo DNI español con chip permite incorporar infinidad de datos personales, incluyendo radiografías, informes médicos y las veces que se sale o entra del territorio nacional.

”Un chip es un circuito integrado que puede ser utilizado en el tejido subcutáneo con diversos fines que van, desde el control policial o sanitario, hasta el ajuste de terapias para determinados pacientes. La tecnología se va abriendo camino en el campo de la biointegración tecnológica de elementos extraños, electrónicos u ópticos, que guardan u ofrecen información sobre nosotros. Pero, ¿dónde están las barreras legales o éticas? Los microchips son aproximadamente del tamaño de un grano de arroz y se basan en una tecnología pasiva, NWO, una gran revolución tecnológica que podrá suponer también muchos adelantos en el campo de la medicina, en el desarrollo del consumo pero sobre todo un control sobre los ciudadanos. En este reportaje de Lourdes S. Payán encontraremos todas las respuestas a tan apasionante tema de actualidad.

 

Los chips subcutáneos son del tamaño de un grano de arroz. Por otra parte, la empresa MC10 está trabajando en una amplia gama de "tatuajes inteligentes" que serán capaces de hacer cosas sorprendentes y que quieren integrar a smartphones.

ESTADOS UNIDOS-Ley sanitaria

Obama Aprueba una nueva ley HR 3590 y también la 4872 la cual entre otras cosas exige que todos los ciudadanos de los EE.UU tengan el RIFD implantado. RFID (siglas de Radio Frequency IDentification, en español identificación por radiofrecuencia) es un sistema de almacenamiento y recuperación de datos remoto que usa dispositivos denominados etiquetas, tarjetas, transpondedores o tags RFID. El propósito fundamental de la tecnología RFID es transmitir la identidad de un objeto (similar a un número de serie único) mediante ondas de radio. Las tecnologías RFID se agrupan dentro de las denominadas Auto ID (automatic identification, o identificación automática).

Esta medida ya se lleva poniendo en marcha desde hace algunos años en Estados Unidos y en otros países en secreto; a manera de experimento también ha sido implantado voluntariamente en todo el mundo para localizar a la extraviada mascota y se sigue usando aún después del descontento de muchos dueños, que han reportado cáncer en sus mascotas tras la implantación del chip. Algunos ciudadanos lo hacen voluntariamente y en algunos colegios de Sudamérica ya se lleva un chip implantado en el uniforme de los estudiantes para tener un mayor control de los mismos.

La nueva ley apoyada por Obama y el Congreso de tal país, indica entre otras obligaciones, que el ciudadano estadounidense use un chip como medida de precaución, según marca el gobierno, el que incluirá toda la información de la persona, es un banco de datos en el cual se podrá saber todo acerca de la persona como fecha de nacimiento, tipo de sangre, estado civil, domicilio, enfermedades que padece y por supuesto las cuentas de banco entre mucha más información, incluso se ha mencionado que el chip ha sido preparado de forma muy minuciosa y probado mucho antes en animales, incluso hay información sobre un experimento que se realizó con éxito en un toro salvaje el cual recibió mediante una inyección un prototipo del chip, el toro que mostraba gran salvajismo, quedo pasivo al recibir impulsos eléctricos a través de un control remoto.

Precisamente esta es la baza que se está jugando a la hora de implantar toda esta tecnología de control: la fácil aceptación por parte de las generaciones más jóvenes.

Un buen ejemplo de ello lo estamos viendo en los propios parques de atracciones norteamericanos, donde se están implementando todo tipo de mecanismos de control, como por ejemplo los escáneres biométricos mediante huella dactilar.

“Se proyecta que el FBI habrá compilado 52 millones de imágenes faciales para el año 2015″. Dicho en otras palabras: en pocos años, el FBI será capaz de identificar y monitorear a cualquier persona que camine por la calle solo grabándola con alguna de los miles de cámaras que ya copan las ciudades norteamericanas, según el Programa "Next Generation Identification"

SISTEMA DE SALUD EN EEUU

Para ser atendido en un hospital deberás llevar el chip implantado con el que se te identificará y verán tu seguro social y tu historial médico. (Lo más importante tu posicionamiento) y así a todo el pueblo norteamericano (en un comienzo, para luego promover esto mundialmente),de esta forma, Estados Unidos será la primera nación del planeta que requerirá que todos sus ciudadanos tengan el implante subcutáneo de un microchip de identificación por radiofrecuencia (RFID).

Requisitos de Implantación: Sec. 2521, Pág. 1000 – El gobierno establecerá un Registro Nacional de Dispositivos Médicos

¿Qué significa un Registro Nacional de Dispositivos Médicos? Registro Nacional de Dispositivos Médicos en H.R. 3200 [Cobertura de Salud], páginas 1001-1008:(g)(1) El Ministerio establecerá un registro nacional de dispositivos médicos (en esta subsección se lo menciona como “registro”) para facilitar el análisis de los datos resultantes y la seguridad de cada dispositivo que –“(A) sea o haya sido usado en un paciente; “(B) y sea –“(i) un dispositivo de clase III; o “(ii) un dispositivo de clase II que sea implantable, de soporte o sustento de vida.”

Luego en la página 1004 describe lo que significa el término “datos” usado en el párrafo 1, sección B:

‘‘(B) En este párrafo, el término “datos” se refiere a la información referente al dispositivo descrito en el párrafo 1, incluyendo datos de órdenes médicas, datos de consultas de los pacientes, archivos de análisis estandarizados que permitan la estadística y análisis de datos procedentes de diferentes entornos de datos, registros electrónicos de salud, y cualquier otra información considerada apropiada por el Ministerio”

¿Qué es exactamente un dispositivo de clase II implantable? Aprobado por la FDA, un dispositivo implantable de clase II es un “sistema transpondedor de radio frecuencia implantable para la identificación del paciente y la información de su salud”. El objetivo del dispositivo de clase II es recoger datos en los pacientes médicos, tales como “datos de las órdenes médicas, los datos de la consulta de los pacientes, los archivos de análisis estandarizados que permitan la estadística y análisis de los datos procedentes de diferentes entornos de datos, registros de salud electrónicos, y cualquier otra información que considerada apropiada por el Ministerio.

Esta nueva ley – al ser implementada – proveerá el marco para hacer de los Estados Unidos la primera nación en el mundo en requerir que cada uno de sus ciudadanos tengan implantados en ellos un microchip de identificación por radiofrecuencia (RFID) con el propósito de controlar quién es la persona y permitir el seguro de salud en su país. No lo cree? 


Cobertura de Salud H.R. 3200 (Healthcare Bill H.R.) 3200:

1001-1008 Sección “Registro Nacional de Dispositivos Médicos”.

Página 1006 “a ser implementada en los 36 meses de vigencia”.

Página 503 “… vigilancia del dispositivo médico” ¿Por qué el gobierno usaría la palabra “vigilancia” al referirse a ciudadanos? La definición de “vigilancia” es el monitoreo del comportamiento, actividades, u otras informaciones cambiantes, comúnmente de personas y siempre de manera secreta. En teoría, la intención de agilizar la asistencia de salud y de eliminar el fraude a través de “chips de cobertura de la salud” parece correcto. Pero, que la única superpotencia del mundo (América, por ahora) obligue al uso (página 1006) de un dispositivo implantable es terrorífico. 

¿Microchips incluidos en la ley de Cobertura Médica?

El ex Ministro de Salud y Servicios Humanos (HHS), Tommy Thompson, quien sirvió en el primer mandato del gobierno de Bush, se unió a la junta de directores de Applied Digital. Applied Digital como todos saben es el propietario de VeriChip.

El nuevo Sistema de Salud. (VeriChip, Implantes Humanos RFID)
 


Implante Humano de Detección de Virus Verichi


COMPUTACION PORTATIL



La empresa MC10 está trabajando en una amplia gama de "tatuajes inteligentes" que serán capaces de hacer cosas realmente salvajes, "El Investigador de Materiales John Rogers está realizando un trabajo increíble con la electrónica flexible que se pega a la piel como un tatuaje temporal. La llamada electrónica epidural puede hacer cualquier cosa, desde el seguimiento de tus constantes vitales hasta alertarte cuando empiezas a quemarte por el sol.

Rogers y su empresa MC10 están tratando de encontrar vías de comunicación entre estos dispositivos electrónicos con otros dispositivos inteligentes, como smartphones, para que puedan comenzar a crear aplicaciones". Y Motorola, de hecho, ya dispone de una patente para un tatuaje que recibirá órdenes procedentes de palabras no vocalizadas en tu garganta…
"El tatuaje que tienen en mente estará estampado sobre las cuerdas vocales para interceptar los comandos de voz sutil, o incluso los susurros totalmente internos que no hacen vibrar las cuerdas vocales cuando no reciben aprobación cerebral completa. Ellos lo llaman "computación portátil" y lo que estamos viendo sólo el grano de arena en la playa.

GTRES -CHIPS SIMILARES AL CEREBRO HUMANO

Un grupo de científicos ha creado un chip "similar al cerebro" que interpreta datos complejos, la silueta de un cerebro humano sobre un circuito de un ordenador. (GTRES). Se trata de un superordenador neurosináptico del tamaño de un sello pero que funciona con la energía equivalente a la de una batería de un audífono. El anuncio, publicado en 'Science', sienta las bases de la computación basada en el cerebro, y podría transformar la ciencia, la tecnología y los negocios. "Ahora estamos más cerca de crear un ordenador similar a nuestro cerebro", precisa el profesor Rajit Manohar, de Cornell Tech. Los científicos de IBM han creado algo que no existía hasta la fecha: un chip de segunda generación que se trata de un superordenador neurosináptico del tamaño de un sello postal pero que funciona únicamente con la energía equivalente a la de una batería de un audífono.

El anuncio, recién publicado en la revista Science en colaboración con Cornell Tech, sienta las bases de la computación basada en el cerebro, y podría transformar la ciencia, la tecnología, los negocios, las administraciones y la sociedad, con aplicaciones en el campo de la visión, audición y multisensoriales, según una nota de IBM. Se trata del primer chip de computación neurosináptica y alcanza la escala de un millón de neuronas programables y 256 millones de sinapsis programables. IMB recuerda que existe una enorme disparidad entre la capacidad cognitiva del cerebro humano y su bajísimo consumo de energía, en comparación con los ordenadores actuales. Para reducir esa brecha, los científicos han creado "una arquitectura de computación completamente nueva, escalable y eficiente, inspirada en la neurociencia y que abre un nuevo camino respecto a la arquitectura von Neumann utilizada casi universalmente desde 1946". "Es un supercomputador del tamaño de un sello, del peso de una pluma y que consume lo mismo que un audífono. Es una innovación genuinamente radical", indicó en Science el científico jefe del equipo de IBM que ha desarrollado el producto, Dharmendra Modha.

Según sus desarrolladores, otra gran ventaja del nuevo microchip es que consume menos energía que los diseños tradicionales, lo que lo hace mucho más eficiente. "Nos hemos basado en dos aspectos de la neurociencia: la neuroanatomía para la estructura y la neurofisiología para los sistemas", explicó Modha. Cómo trabaja este chip de segunda generación es la culminación de casi una década de investigación y desarrollo. Este chip de segunda generación, que podría ser la puerta hacia la era de las grandes redes neuronales, es la culminación de casi una década de investigación y desarrollo, e incluye un prototipo inicial de un chip con un solo núcleo y un ecosistema de software con un nuevo lenguaje de programación y un simulador de chip. Con 5.400 millones de transistores, este chip totalmente operativo, y "el primero en producción a escala, es actualmente uno de los mayores chips CMOS jamás construido", y tiene un consumo minúsculo de 70 milivatios (mW) en ejecución a tiempo real biológico, es decir, varios órdenes de magnitud de gasto de energía inferiores a los de un moderno microprocesador. El nuevo chip tiene una red bidimensional de 4.096 núcleos neurosinápticos digitales distribuidos, donde cada uno de ellos integra memoria, computación y comunicación.

La Agencia de Proyectos de Investigación Avanzada de Defensa (Darpa) financia el proyecto desde 2008 con casi 55 millones de dólares durante la fase 0,1, 2 y 3 del programa Synapse (Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics); entre sus colaboradores actuales están Cornell Tech e IniLabs. El chip incorpora tecnología de fabricación de 28 nanómetros, de memoria en chip compacta y transistores de baja corriente de fuga. "Es un logro sorprendente utilizar el proceso tradicional del ámbito de los dispositivos móviles de bajo consumo para conseguir un chip que emule al cerebro humano, y sea capaz de procesar grandes cantidades de información sensorial con poco consumo", según Shawn Han, vicepresidente de Foundry Marketing, Samsung Electronics. "Ahora estamos ahora más cerca de crear un ordenador similar a nuestro cerebro", precisa el profesor Rajit Manohar, de Cornell Tech.

REINO UNIDO

Por ejemplo, la BBC publicó un artículo titulado "¿Por qué deseo que me implanten un Microchip? - Why I Want A Microchip Implant" en el que explican que estos implantes podrían resolver toda una serie de problemas sociales. El robo de identidad y fraude con tarjetas de crédito estarían casi eliminados, muchas otras formas de delincuencia se reducirían significativamente, los niños nunca desaparecerían y no tendríamos que recordar una tan amplia gama de contraseñas y números PIN como hacemos ahora. EL Dr. Mark Gasson, experto en cibernética de la Universidad de Reading, en el Reino Unido, se convirtió en el primer ser humano en ser infectado por un virus informático, después de que en 2009 se implantara a sí mismo un microchip para controlar los dispositivos electrónicos en su oficina.

El virus se replicó en las tarjetas identificativas del personal con acceso a su edificio e infectó la base de datos de la universidad. No obstante, Gasson de la Reading University y otros científicos dicen que un nuevo mundo con la población masivamente computarizada es inminente e inevitable.

Creo que los implantes de chips en humanos recorrerán un camino similar. Será tal la desventaja de no llevar el implante que esencialmente no será algo opcional". El año pasado, la línea entre el hombre y la máquina se hizo aún más borrosa, cuando la Universidad de Stanford anunció que sus científicos habían creado el primer transistor puramente biológico creado completamente a partir de material genético.

MEXICO

El fiscal general de México y altos funcionarios de su personal han recibido implantes de VeriChip que les da acceso a áreas seguras en su cuartel general y los siguientes de la lista en ser chipeados, según se informa, serán los militares y la policía del país.

El distribuidor de VeriChip, Solusat, también ha anunciado un acuerdo con la Fundación Nacional para la Investigación de Niños Secuestrados y Perdidos de México, para promover la implantación del microchip en los niños del país.

Ahora la empresa VeriChip ha cambiado su nombre, tras un aluvión de publicidad negativa y se ha convertido en un promotor de lo que llaman "sistemas de detección biológica", llamado PositiveID.

Otras compañías también están comercializando los implantes de microchips y sus investigadores están trabajando para integrarlos con tecnología GPS. Se pronostica que cuando lo consigan, los productos ganaran un gran mercado internacional.

ESPAÑA

En España todos tenemos las huellas dactilares registradas en nuestro DNI desde hace años, algo que para los ciudadanos de otros países representaría una intrusión inaceptable en su intimidad y sin embargo nos parece la cosa más normal del mundo.

Si a estas alturas alguien cree que estos sistemas de control no se extenderán a Europa y en una década al resto de países del mundo es que tiene un grave problema con su ingenuidad, solo hay que visitar otras ciudades del mundo. En todas ellas encontrarán computadoras, Internet, smartphones, tablets, Mcdonald’s, Coca-Cola, VISA y Mastercard, Starbucks, Zara, Ikea, Nike-.

AFRICA

Testigo del control biométrico: “Algunas de las soluciones biométricas están ayudando a resolver problemas de suministro de vacunas en África. Hoy en día, un registro de vacunación biométrica ayuda a garantizar que millones de niños de corta edad reciban la vacuna que necesitan para salvar sus vidas. Y al saber quién se ha vacunado, estos preciosos medicamentos que salvan vidas no se desperdician por un exceso de vacunación en unos y falta de vacunación en otros”.

QUENES LO DEFIENDEN A ULTRANZA


Kevin Warwick, profesor de cibernética en la Universidad de Reading, describió el descubrimiento como el componente final necesario para que una computadora biológica pueda operar dentro de las células vivas y reprograme los sistemas vivos. El mismo lleva incorporado un dispositivo electrónico en su cuerpo que se conecta con el sistema nervioso y su esposa lleva implantado en el brazo otro dispositivo más simple.

El empresario de Internet y activista del software libre Jonathan Oxer, se implantó a sí mismo un microchip en el año 2004, después de obtener el mismo kit que usan los veterinarios con las mascotas. Se le describe como "un ciborg en construcción . 

OPOSITORES DE ESTAS TECNOLOGIAS

Son muchos, los que se oponen a lo que esconde o enmascaran estos adelantos, ir en contra de la madre naturaleza nunca salió rentable para el ser humano ,según Katina Michael " profesora asociada de la Universidad de Wollongong, los microchips RFID son esencialmente un identificador único incrustado en tu cuerpo, y como sabemos, los números pueden ser robados y los datos pueden ser hackeados. Incorporar un problema informático externo en el cuerpo humano está lleno de peligros.

¿TERMINREMOS SIENDO TAN SOLO MAQUINAS CON BASE BIOLOGICA?

Quedan claros los subterfugios que se van a utilizar para justificar el avance de estas tecnologías de control masivo: los niños enfermos, la seguridad, la lucha contra la delincuencia, los pobres ancianitos incapacitados o los gatitos perdidos.

Y con ello, de paso, conseguirán que cualquiera que se niegue a aceptarlas o que exponga sus peligros, quede de cara a la opinión pública como una persona paranoica, retrógrada y fanatizada, y es que lo que estamos viviendo parece propio de una película o serie de Hollywood

Hay muchos ciudadanos que se oponen al uso del chip, incluso algunos grupos religiosos hablan de profecías Bíblicas donde se citan tales sistemas, pero no solo los religiosos son los que se oponen sino también algunos estudiosos, psicólogos, sociólogos e intelectuales en general, que están investigando de manera objetiva algunos de sus usos y también sus consecuencias, se ha publicado en diversos medios cuales son algunos otros objetivos del chip en la próxima década ya que muchos no se han dado a conocer de manera abierta.

Continuará haciéndose despacio pero sin pausa como hasta ahora, para que los individuos lo vayan viendo como algo indispensable y lógico, pero pensar tan solo por un instante que incluso se podrán interpretar por medio de impulsos los pensamientos y las emociones de los ciudadanos, de tal manera que si se encuentra algo sospechoso en algún ciudadano, se pueda desactivar el chip en cualquier momento haciendo que el ciudadano prácticamente dejara de existir, por lo menos en la sociedad, será como una especie de marginado o lacra social que incluso no podrá siquiera comprar me parece terrorífico y descabellado. La información lleva servida muchos años, y está en la dosis necesaria para poder sacar nuestras propias conclusiones, y que nada pase desapercibido, ya en la historia del cine, han sido muchas películas las que nos daban señales, "El Quinto Elemento " por ejemplo, no nos dejó sin huella y no dactilar precisamente. To be continued...

 

Translation into English

Closer to the chips implanted in humans

By Lourdes S. Payán

By Lourdes S. Payan

More articles by this author

Saturday, February 21, 2015 , 08: 53h

 

 

 

 

"A chip is an integrated circuit that can be used in subcutaneous tissue for various purposes ranging from police or health control to the adjustment of therapies for certain patients. Technology is making its way in the field of technological biointegration of strange elements, electronic or optical, that store or offer information about us. But where are the legal or ethical barriers? The microchips are about the size of a grain of rice and are based on a passive technology, NWO, a great technological revolution that can also mean many advances in the field of medicine, in the development of consumption but above all a control over the citizens. In this report by Lourdes S. Payán we will find all the answers to such an exciting topic.

 

The subcutaneous chips are the size of a grain of rice. On the other hand, the company MC10 is working on a wide range of "smart tattoos" that will be able to do amazing things and want to integrate smartphones.




UNITED STATES-Health Law

Obama Approves a new law HR 3590 and also the 4872 which among other things requires that all US citizens have the RIFD implanted. RFID (abbreviation for Radio Frequency IDentification) is a remote data storage and retrieval system that uses devices called tags, cards, transponders or RFID tags. The fundamental purpose of RFID technology is to transmit the identity of an object (similar to a unique serial number) by radio waves. RFID technologies are grouped within the so-called Auto ID (automatic identification).

This measure has been underway for some years in the United States and in other countries in secret; As an experiment, it has also been voluntarily implanted around the world to locate the lost pet and is still used even after the discontent of many owners, who have reported cancer in their pets after the implantation of the chip. Some citizens do it voluntarily and in some schools in South America a chip is already implanted in the students' uniform to have a greater control over them. 

The new law supported by Obamaand the Congress of such country, indicates among other obligations, that the US citizen use a chip as a precautionary measure, according to the government, which will include all the information of the person, is a data bank in which you can know everything about the person as date of birth, blood type, marital status, address, illnesses suffered and of course the bank accounts among much more information, it was even mentioned that the chip has been prepared in a very thorough and proven much earlier in animals, there is even information about an experiment that was carried out successfully in a wild bull which received by injection a prototype of the chip, the bull that showed great savagery, was passive when receiving electrical impulses through a remote control .

Precisely this is the trick that is being played when implementing all this control technology: the easy acceptance by the younger generations. 

A good example of this is seen in the North American amusement parks, where all kinds of control mechanisms are being implemented, such as biometric fingerprint scanners. 

"It is projected that the FBI will have compiled 52 million facial images for 2015." In other words: in a few years, the FBI will be able to identify and monitor anyone who walks down the street only by recording it with one of the thousands of cameras that American cities already have, according to the "Next Generation Identification" Program

HEALTH SYSTEM IN THE USA

To be treated in a hospital, you must carry the implanted chip with which you will be identified and you will see your social security and medical history. (Most importantly, your positioning) and so to all the American people (at first, to promote this worldwide), in this way, the United States will be the first nation on the planet that will require all its citizens to have the subcutaneous implant of a radio frequency identification microchip (RFID). 

Implementation Requirements: Sec. 2521, p. 1000 - The government will establish a National Registry of Medical Devices

What does a National Registry of Medical Devices mean? National Registry of Medical Devices in HR 3200 [Health Coverage], pages 1001-1008: (g) (1) The Ministry will establish a national registry of medical devices (in this subsection it is referred to as a "registry") to facilitate the analysis of the resulting data and the safety of each device that - "(A) is or has been used on a patient; "(B) and be -" (i) a class III device; or "(ii) a class II device that is implantable, supportive or life-sustaining." 

Then on page 1004 describes what the term "data" used in paragraph 1, section B, means:

'' (B) In this paragraph, the term "data" refers to information regarding the device described in paragraph 1, including medical order data, patient consultation data, standardized analysis files that allow statistics and analysis of data from different data environments, electronic health records, and any other information deemed appropriate by the Ministry "

What exactly is an implantable class II device? Approved by the FDA, a class II implantable device is an "implantable radio frequency transponder system for patient identification and health information." The objective of the class II device is to collect data in medical patients, such as "data from medical orders, patient consultation data, standardized analysis files that allow statistics and analysis of data from different data environments, electronic health records, and any other information deemed appropriate by the Ministry.

This new law - when implemented - will provide the framework to make the United States the first nation in the world to require that each of its citizens have a radio frequency identification (RFID) microchip implanted in them in order to control who is the person and allow health insurance in your country. Do not believe it?


Health Coverage HR 3200 (Healthcare Bill HR) 3200: 

1001-1008 Section "National Registry of Medical Devices." 

Page 1006 "to be implemented in the 36 months of validity". 

Page 503 "... surveillance of the medical device" Why would the government use the word "surveillance" when referring to citizens? The definition of "vigilance" is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information, commonly of people and always secretly. In theory, the intention to streamline health care and eliminate fraud through "health coverage chips" seems correct. But, that the only superpower in the world (America, for now) requires the use (page 1006) of an implantable device is terrifying.

Microchips included in the Medical Coverage law? 

Former Minister of Health and Human Services (HHS), Tommy Thompson , who served in the first term of the Bush administration, joined the board of directors of Applied Digital. Applied Digital as you all know is the owner of VeriChip. 

The new Health System. (VeriChip, Human RFID Implants)
 


Human Virus Detection Verichi


PORTABLE COMPUTATION



The MC10 company is working on a wide range of "smart tattoos" that will be able to do really wild things, "Material Researcher John Rogers is doing an amazing job with flexible electronics that stick to the skin like a tattoo The electronic epidural call can do anything from monitoring your vital signs to alerting you when you start to get burned by the sun.

Rogers and his company MC10 are trying to find ways of communicating between these electronic devices with other smart devices, such as smartphones, so they can start creating applications. "And Motorola, in fact, already has a patent for a tattoo that will receive orders coming from words not vocalized in your throat ... 
"The tattoo you have in mind will be stamped on the vocal cords to intercept the subtle voice commands, or even the totally internal whispers that do not vibrate the vocal cords when they do not receive full brain approval. They call it "portable computing" and what we're seeing is just the grain of sand on the beach. 

GTRES-SIMILAR CHIPS TO THE HUMAN BRAIN

A group of scientists has created a chip "similar to the brain" that interprets complex data, the silhouette of a human brain on a circuit of a computer. (GTRES). It is a neurosynaptic supercomputer the size of a seal but works with the equivalent energy of a battery in a hearing aid. The announcement, published in 'Science', lays the foundations of brain-based computing, and could transform science, technology and business. "We are now closer to creating a computer similar to our brain," says Professor Rajit Manohar of Cornell Tech . IBMscientiststhey have created something that did not exist to date: a second-generation chip that is a neurosynaptic supercomputer the size of a postage stamp but works only with the energy equivalent of a battery in a hearing aid.

The ad, just published in the journal Science in collaboration with Cornell Tech, lays the foundations of brain-based computing, and could transform science, technology, business, government and society, with applications in the field of vision, hearing and multisensory, according to an IBM note. It is the first neurosynaptic computer chip and reaches the scale of one million programmable neurons and 256 million programmable synapses. IMB remembers that there is a huge disparity between the cognitive capacity of the human brain and its very low energy consumption, compared to current computers. To reduce that gap, scientists have created "a completely new, scalable and efficient computing architecture, inspired by neuroscience and that opens a new path with respect to the von Neumann architecture used almost universally since 1946. "" It is a supercomputer the size of a stamp, the weight of a pen and consumes the same as a hearing aid. It is a genuinely radical innovation, "said the chief scientist of the IBM team that developed the product, Dharmendra Modha, in Science.

According to its developers, another great advantage of the new microchip is that it consumes less energy than traditional designs, which makes it much more efficient. "We have relied on two aspects of neuroscience: neuroanatomy for structure and neurophysiology for systems," explained Modha.. How this second generation chip works is the culmination of almost a decade of research and development. This second-generation chip, which could be the gateway to the era of large neural networks, is the culmination of almost a decade of research and development, and includes an initial prototype of a single-core chip and a software ecosystem with a new programming language and a chip simulator. With 5,400 million transistors, this fully operational chip, and "the first in scale production, is currently one of the largest CMOS chips ever built", and has a miniscule consumption of 70 milliwatts (mW) in real time biological execution, that is, several orders of magnitude of energy expenditure lower than those of a modern microprocessor. The new chip has a two-dimensional network of 4.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) has financed the project since 2008 with almost 55 million dollars during phases 0,1, 2 and 3 of the Synapse program (Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics) ; among his current collaborators are Cornell Tech and IniLabs. The chip incorporates 28 nanometer manufacturing technology, compact chip memory and low leakage current transistors. "It's a surprising achievement to use the traditional process of low-power mobile devices to get a chip that emulates the human brain, and is capable of processing large amounts of sensory information with little consumption," said Shawn Han, vice president of Foundry. Marketing, Samsung Electronics. "Now we are closer to creating a computer similar to our brain," says Professor Rajit Manohar of Cornell Tech. 

UNITED KINGDOM

For example, the BBC published an article entitled "Why do I want to implant a Microchip? - Why I Want A Microchip Implant" in which they explain that these implants could solve a whole series of social problems. Identity theft and credit card fraud would be almost eliminated, many other forms of crime would be significantly reduced, children would never disappear and we would not have to remember such a wide range of passwords and PINs as we do now. Dr. Mark Gasson, an expert in cybernetics at the University of Reading , in the United Kingdom, became the first human being to be infected by a computer virus, after in 2009 he implanted himself a microchip to control the electronic devices in your office.

The virus was replicated on identification cards of staff with access to their building and infected the university's database. However, Gasson of Reading University and other scientists say that a new world with a massively computerized population is imminent and inevitable. 

I believe that the implants of chips in humans will follow a similar path. The disadvantage of not wearing the implant will be such that it will not be something optional. "Last year, the line between man and machine became even more blurred, when Stanford University announced that its scientists had created the first purely transistor biological completely created from genetic material. 

MEXICO

The Attorney General of Mexico and senior officials of his staff have received VeriChip implants that give them access to safe areas in their headquarters and the following ones from the list to be chipped, reportedly, will be the military and the police of the country. 

The VeriChip distributor , Solusat, has also announced an agreement with the National Foundation for the Investigation of Kidnapped and Lost Children of Mexico, to promote the implementation of the microchip in the country's children. 

Now the company VeriChip has changed its name, after a flood of negative publicity and has become a promoter of what they call "biological detection systems", called PositiveID.

Other companies are also commercializing the microchip implants and their researchers are working to integrate them with GPS technology. It is predicted that when they succeed, the products will win a large international market. 

SPAIN

In Spain we all have the fingerprints registered in our ID for years, something that for citizens of other countries would represent an unacceptable intrusion into their privacy and yet it seems the most normal thing in the world.

If at this point someone believes that these control systems will not spread to Europe and in a decade to other countries in the world is that it has a serious problem with its naivety, you just have to visit other cities in the world. In all of them you will find computers, Internet, smartphones, tablets, Mcdonald's, Coca-Cola, VISA and Mastercard, Starbucks, Zara, Ikea, Nike-. 

AFRICA

Witness of biometric control: "Some of the biometric solutions are helping to solve vaccine supply problems in Africa. Today, a biometric vaccination record helps ensure that millions of young children receive the vaccine they need to save their lives. And knowing who has been vaccinated, these precious medicines that save lives are not wasted by an excess of vaccination in some and lack of vaccination in others. 

WHAT THEY DEFEND ULTIMATELY


Kevin Warwick, professor of cybernetics at the University of Reading, described the discovery as the final component necessary for a biological computer to operate within living cells and reprogram living systems. It has an electronic device in its body that connects with the nervous system and his wife has another simpler device implanted in his arm. 

Internet entrepreneur and free software activist Jonathan Oxer, implanted himself a microchip in 2004, after obtaining the same kit that veterinarians use with pets. It is described as "a cyborg under construction." 

OPPOSITORS OF THESE TECHNOLOGIES

There are many, those who oppose what hides or masks these advances, go against Mother Nature never came out profitable for the human being, according to Katina Michael "Associate Professor at the University of Wollongong, RFID microchips are essentially an identifier only embedded in your body, and as we know, numbers can be stolen and the data can be hacked. Incorporating an external computer problem in the human body is full of dangers. 

¿TERMINREMOS still only MACHINES wITH BASE BIOLOGICA?

clarity on the subterfuges that they will be used to justify the advancement of these mass control technologies: sick children, security, the fight against crime, the poor disabled old people or the lost kittens.

And with this, in the process, they will get anyone who refuses to accept them or exposes their dangers, to face the public opinion as a paranoid, retrograde and fanatical person, and that what we are living seems like a movie or Hollywood series

There are many citizens who oppose the use of the chip, even some religious groups speak of Biblical prophecies where such systems are cited, but not only the religious are those who oppose but also some scholars, psychologists, sociologists and intellectuals in general , which are objectively investigating some of their uses and also their consequences, has been published in various media which are some other objectives of the chip in the next decade since many have not been publicized in an open manner.

It will continue to be done slowly but without pause as it has been until now, so that individuals see it as something indispensable and logical, but only think for a moment that even the thoughts and emotions of citizens can be interpreted by means of impulses. so that if something suspicious is found in some citizen, the chip can be deactivated at any time, causing the citizen to practically cease to exist, at least in society, it will be like a kind of marginalized or social scourge that he will not even be able to buy It seems terrifying and crazy. The information has been used for many years, and is in the dose necessary to draw our own conclusions, and nothing goes unnoticed, and in the history of cinema, many movies have given us signals,"

Citation: Lourdes S. Payán, February 21, 2015 http://www.elmundofinanciero.com/noticia/39173/Tendencias/Mascercaloschipsimplantadosenhumanos.html

TEDxUWollongong: The Social Implications of Microchipping People

A/Professor Katina Michael from the University of Wollongong, speaks at the 2012 TEDxUWollongong on the moral and ethical dilemmas of emerging technologies. The 3 scenarios she performs raise very interesting social implications for our humanity. http://www.tedxuwollongong.com  

Speaker playlist here

Photostream available here

What Could Microchips in Humans be Used for?

kma.jpg

Citation: Katina Michael with Katherine Albrecht, July 30, 2011, "What could microchips in humans be used for?" The Katherine Albrecht Show: Talk Radio with a Freedom Twist.

Note: I conducted this interview from Wollongong Hospital. Our line was cut several times as there was poor mobile reception in the ward. Only 10 minutes were captured. Here is the interview without commercials.

Controlling Technology

Katina Michael is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Information Systems and Technology, Faculty of Informatics, University of Wollongong. Her latest book, co-authored by her husband Dr MG Michael, examines the social and ethical implications of surveillance technologies.

University of Wollongong academics Dr Katina Michael and Dr MG Michael have co-authored a book about the social impact of surveillance technologies.

Automatic Identification and Location-Based Services:from Bar Codes to Chip Implants (Information Science Reference, 2009) is a 500+ page reference book that emphasises the convergence and trajectory of automatic identification and location- based services toward chip implants and real-time positioning capabilities.

Automatic identification (auto-ID) is the act of identifying a living or non­living thing without direct human intervention. Location- based services (LBS) is the ability for an information system to denote the position of a user, based on a device they are carrying or their position in a given context. Recording the history of automatic identification from manual to automatic techniques (eg tattoos, barcodes and biometrics), this book also  discusses the social, cultural and ethical implications of the technological possibilities with respect to national security initiatives.

The book co-authored with honorary senior fellow Dr MG Michael is one of the first academic books to address the potential use of microchip implants for commercial applications, outside the medical domain. Instead of the traditional use of beneath-the-skin chips for prosthetic devices such as heart pacemakers, this detailed empirical study on microchip implants focuses on the potential for use-cases in access control, electronic health record identifiers and e-payment systems.

Being able to imply someone’s identity by their very location is extremely powerful, with critical implications for law enforcement and emergency services. Indeed this book is about the social implications of technology, and how new emerging innovations are completely changing the rules of engagement.

The book will be of interest not only to technologists, but also scholars, policy makers and advisors, legal and regulatory bodies. Yet the book is accessible by the wider community, and can also be used to raise public awareness about the potential social implications of emerging technologies.

The book was largely written during a time of global geo-political and economic turbulence when the world witnessed a rise in a new kind of terrorism and also large- scale natural disasters. In this time of evident technological advancement, many questioned why in such a period of rapid scientific progress we were so incapable of responding to such catastrophic events as the Hurricane Katrina disaster of 2005.

Government agencies, whether in the business of strategic intelligence or emergency management or securitisation are seeking new ways to protect their nation’s borders. In doing so, they have turned to technology for the answers.

For now the ID trajectory appears to be one of aiming to control the masses using technologies innovators have created and instituted. The question is whether this is the kind of environment we want to live in, filled with smart sensors, smart objects and real-time analytics. On face value, most perceive competitive advantages in terms of cost savings in business or at least emphasise the convenience factor for the individual or family. Wouldn’t it be a great life if I could walk up to my house door and not have to fiddle with keys to gain entry? Or if my office space could gauge my desired level of comfort and adjust settings accordingly? Or better still wouldn’t it be great if I could just communicate with others just by thinking about them, and never have to lift a handset? Or even know the whereabouts of my children at all times!

All these kinds of potential lifestyle options seem great but what ofthe continual decline of the individual to live, act, and to make decisions within a discernible physical space? Have we seriously considered the extensive implications this “new order” of existence might have on our general well-being?

And these are real consequences (not simply imagined ones) both on the physical and mental levels. Are we trying to convince ourselves that such things are the “Holy Grail” to contentment, to happiness, to the idealised, if not ideal life?

The consequences of these initiatives will take some time to be felt but already we can predict with some confidence some of the shortfalls. Postmodernist theory might have us believe that the profession of history is in crisis and that its methods are outmoded, but as Richard Evans and others have effectively argued, the discipline can teach us many lessons and provide us with genuine insights.

And in the context of technology itself, thinkers in the sociological tradition of Lewis Mumford and Jacques Ellul continue to challenge us to stop for a moment and to critically evaluate the unchecked consequences upon our civilisation of an “artificial environment”.

Whatever road is taken, the irreversible consequences will be felt by future generations. This is perhaps a traditional problem that has less to do with technology and more to do with people. Are we continually building new defences with a “catch me if you can” attitude, and “here, try penetrating my latest solutions”, or are we genuine about peaceful resolutions which look at the root causes of national security concerns?

The question is how much room are we truly leaving ourselves for future modification and change, if we go ahead and implement what we are proposing today? For the record, no one is debunking technology. The point is to remain the masters over that which we create, and to not allow for the “machine”to dictate the terms and boundaries of our existence.

Q&A

Are you getting anywhere?

When you see national and international linkages in the form of cross-institutional collaborative efforts with real tangible outputs, you know you must be getting somewhere. Collaborations take years to develop -you need to understand what it is you wish to contribute, how you fit into your academic institution and wider context of national innovation, and how you might play a part in the international arena.

Best part of your research?

I enjoy working with people - mentoring young scholars, collaborating with colleagues, ongoing education and helping break new ground. Next year I am excited about our hosting the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society at the University of Wollongong on the theme of the social implications of emerging technologies. It is the first time academics across disciplines and countries will come together to discuss the socio-ethical implications of the potential use of microchip implants in humans, commercial location-based services and social networking technologies.

Funniest moment:

I was at an e-commerce conference in Chile in 2005 which had real-time translations of presentations (eg Spanish-to­English, English-to-Spanish). I decided I would try my hand at some Spanish and caught the translators off-guard completely, to the amusement of the audience.

Ugliest moment:

I’ve had a few while working in industry and much of this had to do with politics related to vendor-customer contract obligations. But in academia I cannot recollect a single ugly moment.

Have you had a true “Eureka! I’ve found it!”experience?

Yes, helping conceptualise the term “uberveillance” with MG Michael. It was voted Macquarie Online Dictionary Word of the Year in the technology category in 2008. That surprise still seems a little surreal.

Has it made you rich?

Not in dollar terms but it has contributed to raising public awareness about the implications of technology on society. When you receive messages of support outside academia you know you are striking a chord with your research. MG and I have been cited in government departmental reports, asked to give evidence in court cases on electronic surveillance, participated in federal government round tables, including international reference citations in Forbes Magazine, New York Times, LapTop Magazine, National Post and ABC America. The fact that uberveillance has now entered every-day language means people can relate to it.

What did you want to be when you were a kid?

I loved participating in theatrical productions a lot - to some degree academics are in theatre ... lecturers should put on real performances when delivering their lectures to invite the audience to reflect on the subject matter more meaningfully. We shouldn’t be teaching our students to be parrots but to be critical thinkers who can interpret. Has your career followed a straight line? No, I have not had the typical academic career path but far from having halted my progress, this non-traditional entry has made my perspectives multi­dimensional and transdisciplinary.

What would you change?

If I could, the number of hours in the day!

Advice for young researchers?

University years are what you make of them. Take advantage of every opportunity to become a part of extra-curricular activities. It will help make you a well-rounded person and provide a balance between work, study and social life.

Next adventure?

Well, we’ve just finished a 500+ page reference book. The next adventure is a secret but I can say it’s a sequel of sorts.

Website for further information:

ro.uow.edu.au/ kmichael

Final comment:

“Day by day.”

Citation: Katina and MG Michael, Controlling Technology, Illawarra Mercury, September 22, 2009, p. 23.

Review: “Control, Trust, Privacy, and Security: Evaluating Location-Based Services”

Source: Trimble.

The Navtrak Website proudly tells businesses that “with the Navtrak GPS vehicle tracker, your [fleet] insurance risks decrease dramatically... .”In October 2003, Wired reported that “The Georgia Institute of Technology is sponsoring a study using global positioning systems to track the movements of cars and monitor the motoring habits of their drivers.”

A common complaint among those who like to imagine vast government conspiracies and alien abductions is that of the feared “implant,” essentially a radio frequency ID (RFID) chip, used to track the recipient’s movements.

The following is the fourth and last review of articles about ethical and philosophical considerations for security and privacy in technology from the Spring 2007 (vol. 26, #1) issue of IEEE Technology and Society Magazine.

Control, Trust, Privacy, and Security: Evaluating Location-Based Services” by Laura Perusco and Katina Michael

The use of location based services (LBS) has long been a figure in popular science fiction. Practical tracking of individuals for the benefit of society is not a new possibility, as the Wired quote indicates. Only recently has technology, cost, and desire merged to create the necessary atmosphere. Today, such an ability is even bragged about as a way for a business to save money.

Ms. Perusco and Ms. Michael use LBS in their article as a concrete example of technology’s ethical ambiguity. Generally, an LBS is any service that uses the position of something for a specific purpose. GPS and RFID are examples of LBS.

The use of LBS creates special ethical and legal questions. Who has accountability for the accuracy and availability of location information? Under what circumstances can a user opt-in or -out of LBS? What are the rights of caregivers and guardians to the location information of their charges? How long is location information stored?

The authors use five short stories, which they call scenarios, to set up the discussion of these issues. Because the authors are from the University of Wollongong in Australia, they conduct their analyses from an Australian social and legal perspective.

There exists a serious disparity between technological progress and its implications for the future, especially in terms of security and privacy. This, the authors argue, requires increased scrutiny. Their article is one attempt.

The first scenario, “Control Unwired,” explores vulnerability. Kate, working late in the big city, comes close to mortal peril as she struggles to use her PDA to locate and call a cab.

The second scenario, “The Husband and His Wife,” highlights the threat to personal autonomy. Unhappy Colin wears an RFID chip in his shirts so his wife Helen can keep track of his movements. She worries about his health after a scare with angina.

Next, “The Friends and Colleagues” examines group control. Scott and his girlfriend Janet debate the government’s increased use of RFID chips implanted into parolees. As a parole officer, Scott argues the benefits to society. Janet, though, worries that the government could expand tracking further into the general population.

The fourth and fifth scenarios combine to show the dangers of misplaced trust in technology. At a routine visit to a parolee, Scott checks that Doug’s RFID is functioning properly. After Scott leaves, we see that Doug has spoofed the system. He can leave the chip at home while he goes out for his own particular kind of fun.

Together, these scenarios present a bleak picture of people who have lost control over their autonomy. For example, we see Kate who cannot get a cab without the aid of her PDA, putting her safety in jeopardy. Then there’s poor Colin, whose movements are monitored and restricted by his well-meaning wife.

Additionally, we have examples of false security from LBS. Colin gets the better of his wife when the battery dies while she’s on a plane. Doug can go on the prowl after he cuts out his RFID.

In the real world, the situation is no better. The authors report that following the July 2005 London subway bombings, the Australian government passed laws allowing people merely suspected of terrorist activities to be tracked with wearable devices.

The scenarios prompt many questions, none of which have obvious answers. When can mere suspicion justify the ultimate invasion of privacy–our bodies? Who decides when intensive monitoring is for “our own good?”

A long running debate centers on whether technology is neutral or has an inherent social impact. “Guns don’t kill people; people kill people.”

Ms. Perusco and Ms. Michael state that “[t]hese situations [the stories] imply that LBS is not neutral, and that the technology is designed to enhance control in various forms.” (p. 11) In this case, though, they fail to mention that LBS are primarily used to monitor and control inventory, which most would consider neutral.

Technological determinism is the theory that technical developments drive the way we live. The authors counter that technologies which cannot find a market never develop enough to change society. For example, electronic tracking requires LBS. The use of LBS on people requires a society strongly concerned with security. Social needs and technology mesh.

Society must also be wary of the consequences of relying heavily on any technology. “If we become as reliant on LBS as we have become on other technologies like electricity, motor vehicles, and computers, we must be prepared for the consequences when (not if) the technology fails” (p. 12), write the authors.

As in the previous three articles from IEEE Technology and Society Magazine summarized here, “[t]he principal question is: how much privacy are we willing to trade in order to increase security?” (p. 13)

The authors ask whether the widespread use of LBS will have a long-term positive or negative on society and individuals? “[N]ot all secondary effects can be foreseen. However, this does not mean that deliberating on the possible consequences is without some genuine worth.”

Read all the articles in this series:

·      “Review: Privacy and Security as Ideology“

·      “Review: Designing Ethical Phishing Experiments“

·      “Review: Good Neighbors Can Make Good Fences“

·      “Review: Privacy and Security a Synthesis“

06.18.2007. | Categories: Literature Review

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Citation: JML Research, Review: "Control, Trust, Privacy, and Security: Evaluating Location-Based Services" by Perusco & Michael (2007), November 23, 2008.

Hi-tech versus Privacy

Hi-tech vs privacy

Picture: ORLANDO CHIODO

Picture: ORLANDO CHIODO

University of Wollongong senior lecturer Katina Michael researches the use of tracking technologies and their human impact. With the threat of terrorism prompting the increased use of technology to keep track of people, and talk of the reintroduction of a national ID card, KATINA MICHAEL, senior  lecturer at the University of Wollongong, researches these options with a view to their social impact.

I research emerging technologies targeted at mass market applications, and the social implications of these technologies on citizens and business. In 1996 I began researching smart cards and then in the following year expanded my interests to the wider automatic identification industry: bar code, magnetic-stripe card, biometrics, radio-frequency identification (RFID). In 2004, I further extended my research agenda to include location technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS), wireless local area networks, UHF, cellular triangulation, chip implants and geographic information  systems (GIS). 

My work explores the dynamics between technology and service providers,  customers, endusers (eg citizens) and government agencies in the process of technological innovation. I am particularly interested in the technological trajectory of the identification and location-based services (LBS) industry and use a historical method to analyse changes that have occurred over time. 

My predictive studies are based on the  current state of development and verifiable  cutting-edge research. My unit of analysis is multi-layered - the technology at the first  instance, then the application context, and finally the given product or process innovation.


Together with research students, I have developed the 3Cs and 3Ts classification of  location-based applications - Control, Care, Convenience and Tagging, Tracking, Tracing.
This approach lends itself well to usability contexts, used to analyse applications that are focused on identifying or locating objects, animals or people at varying levels of  location accuracy - from precision to proximity. 

More recently I have become interested in how emerging technologies impact social ethics and legislation. My work is aimed at influencing Australian government policy, and for that reason has broader applicability than just in the information technology sector alone.
Currently, the rekindling of the Australia Card debate, the controversial use of RFID and  Biometrics for ePassports, and the newly defined laws in telecommunications interception and anti-terrorism are important issues as they affect not only suspected terrorists and intercountry travellers but all citizens of Australia. 

Consider the 24x7 tracking of suspected terrorists or the obligatory adoption of card schemes mandated by the Government and enforced by law. The latter example appeals directly to the national security debate, in which I have been an active participant since completing my PhD. However, given the area of study, my research has as much applicability to national security as it does to the emergency management sector, as there are common approaches to aiding communication and collaboration using electronic and mobile business applications in either context. 

Perhaps my single-most passionate research area is looking at the development of the human-computer metaphor. I have been studying the implantation of chips into humans for a variety of applications, including for medical purposes. This topic brings together research from diverse fields including medical, robotics, automatic identification,  ubiquitous computing, technology trends, culture and ethics. 

Katina Michael is a senior lecturer in the School of Information Technology and Computer Science at the University of Wollongong.

Q&A

Will it save the world?

No. The best most of us can hope for is that our research plays at least a small part in the wider context of a larger research project which is considered useful to society at large. 

Years spent trying:

My first minor research project began in July 1996 and was titled Social Implications of Smart Cards: an Australian Case Study. So I guess that means I have been researching in the field for about 10 years. Are you getting anywhere? Yes. Research however is a lifelong endeavour. 

Best part of your research? 

Without a doubt it is mentoring younger scholars, collaborating with colleagues, ongoing education and helping break new ground. Have you had a true ‘‘Eureka! I’ve found it!’’ experience? Yes - founding the concepts of ‘‘electrophorus’’ and ‘‘homoelectricus’’ with DrM G Michael while collaborating on a paper. I have also had a great number of ‘‘you  beaut’’ moments, particularly while supervising my research students. 

Has it made you rich?

Not in dollar terms, but rich in experience and  perspective. What did you want to be when you were a kid? I never quite knew what I wanted  to be when I was growing up, although I liked studying English, writing poetry and being a part of theatrical productions all through primary and high school. I never set out to be an academic until after I left my previous workplace. It happened quite unexpectedly. 

Has your career followed a straight line?

I do not think I’ve had the normal academic career path, although I did a Bachelor’s degree followed by a PhD in close succession. When I finished my undergraduate studies, I had discounted further research as an option, until my husband encouraged me to work and study at the same time. It was tough but well worth it. I used my annual leave to hack away at my thesis. One of the toughest things I faced was maintaining  focus on the same research question after long periods away from the university campus but I  was passionate about my PhD topic and in the end that is what got me through the very late  nights and long haul. 

Advice for young researchers:

Persistence, hard work, integrity and passion for learning and sharing. Website: www.itacs.uow.edu.au/school/staff/katina/

Citation: Katina Michael, "Hi-Tech vs Privacy", Illawarra Mercury, October 31, 2006.