Face to face with Big Brother

drivers license oz.jpg
  • National biometric database to fight terrorism, identity theft and serious crimes 
  • Drivers' licences to start to be loaded into Home Affairs new database soon
  • The new database can also be used in the prevent outbreaks of serious diseases

A national facial recognition database system is set to become Australia's latest weapon in the crackdown against terrorism, identity theft and serious crimes.

Millions of driver's licences will start to be loaded into the Department of Home Affairs new biometric database within months, which every Australian drivers licence could be linked within 18 months, The Courier-Mail has revealed.

Police are currently being trained to use the Driver Licence Facial Recognition Solution, the publication reported.

Firearms, fishing and proof-of-age cards can also be uploaded into the system which can hold up to 30 million licences.

The aim of the database is to give national and state law enforcement agencies a new crime fighting tool in their crackdown against terrorism, identity theft and serious crime. 

To solve serious crimes, police will be able to run CCTV through the database, which will bring up to 20 possible suspects.

The database will also prevent outbreaks of serious diseases, where health agencies can request police to track down members of the public who came into contact with someone carrying a disease.

While all states and territories agreed to the identity-matching services last year, the  federal government is yet to get new laws passed through parliament.

Privacy has been raised as a concern, along with the vulnerabilities of biometrics.

Around half of Australia's population already have some type of visual biometric stored in a nationally-accessible database, according to technology and legal expert Professor Katina Michael.

She told the ABC earlier this year that figure to grow will 80 per cent with the inclusion of drivers licences.

'It's not like a one-on-one match, where you put (in) an individual's face and say: 'they're a suspect',' Professor Michael said.

'But rather what you get returned is a number of possibilities … you might get back 15, or 20, or 30, or 50 matches.'

Citation: Kylie Stevens, August 6, 2018, "Face to face with Big Brother: Millions of driver's licences to be linked to proposed national facial recognition database", DailyMail: Australia, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6028795/Millions-drivers-licences-linked-proposed-national-facial-recognition-database.html

Kekhawatiran Semakin Terbukanya Data Pribadi di Era Digital

Kekhawatiran Semakin Terbukanya Data Pribadi di Era Digital

Senin, 15 Januari 2018 11:05 WIB

Wajah kita menjadi alat terbaru dalam dunia pengawasan digital. Dan di Australia kartu izin mengemudi mulai digunakan untuk melacak orang-orang, baik di dunia nyata maupun dalam dunia maya.

Data Biometrik

  • Sistem biometrik adalah mengenali seseorang berdasarkan ciri-ciri fisik, karakter, dan perilakunya
  • Data biometrik menggunakan data pribadi online lewat foto, usia, dan alamat tinggal
  • Data pribadi ini kemudian dicocokan dengan gambar yang terekam CCTV atau foto di internet
  • Data bisa digunakan oleh agen pemerintah, termasuk perusahaan, bahkan kelompok kejahatan

Para ahli memperingatkan data biometrik milik kita mungkin sudah rentan disalahgunakan oleh komplotan penjahat dan teroris, karena maraknya gabungan penggunaan telepon dan jejaring sosial serta adanya kamera CCTV dimana-mana, sehingga kita lebih sering tertangkap kamera.

Kartu izin mengemudi akan ditambahkan ke database biometrik di Australia, setelah adanya kesepakatan dengan negara-negara bagian dan wilayah khusus, sehingga pihak berwenang dapat mengakses informasi soal warga mereka dengan cara yang belum pernah ada sebelumnya.

Sebuah sistem yang dikenal dengan sebutan 'The Interoperability Hub' sudah ada di Australia, yang memungkinkan pihak-pihak berwenang untuk mengambil foto dari CCTV atau media lainnya yang kemudian dicocokkan dengan database foto-foto dari paspor. Proses ini dikenal dengan sebutan 'The Capability.'

Tetapi, setelah kartu izin mengemudi masuk ke sistem database baru, maka pemerintah dan sejumlah pihak swasta dapat mengakses foto, usia, dan alamat Anda.

Sistem ini sudah menghabiskan $21 juta, senilai Rp 210 miliar, sebagai cara untuk mengatasi terorisme dan membuat layanan komersial lebih aman.

Namun para ahli memperingatkan kini warga beresiko kehilangan biometrik mereka sama sekali, karena pihak komersial, pemerintah dan kelompok kejahatan terorganisir berupaya untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak data pribadi demi keuntungan mereka sendiri.

Kartu izin mengemudi jadi sumber data baru

Kartu izin mengemudi di Australia sudah ditambahkan sebagai sumber data biometrik

Pakar teknologi dan hukum, Profesor Katina Michael mengatakan sekitar 50 persen populasi Australia telah memiliki semacam biometrik visual tersimpan dalam database yang dapat diakses secara nasional. Namun dengan digunakannya kartu izin pengemudi akan menyebabkan lebih banyak data pribadi warga yang tersimpan dan membuat jumlahnya naik 80 persen.

Profesor Michael mengatakan salah satu risiko terbesar dari pengumpulan data biometrik adalah bukan penyalahgunaan yang tidak disengaja oleh kepolisian federal Australia (AFP), agen intelijen Australia (ASIO), atau agen pemerintah lainnya, melainkan kerentanan cara kerja biometrik yang rentan.

"Ini bukan seperti Anda memasukan wajah seseorang kemudian mengatakan, 'mereka adalah tersangka'," kata Profesor Michael.

"Tapi yang kita dapatkan adalah sejumlah kemungkinan... mungkin ada 15, 20, 30, atau bahkan 50 kemiripan."

Jadi, yang akan didapatkan bukan satu orang yang akan ditangkap, melainkan 50 orang yang tak bersalah menjadi tersangka.

Profesor Michael menjelaskan ini berarti bahwa meski nama seseorang bisa dipulihkan seiring waktu jika terbukti tidak bersalah, tapi masih ada dalam database yang terkait penyelidikan kriminal.

Orang diawasi secara terus menerus

Teknologi baru bisa memantau dan mengenali wajah orang di kerumunan.

Profesor Michael mengatakan metode pengawasan modern yang digunakan penegak hukum tidak hanya terbatas pada CCTV. Mereka juga sekarang bisa memasukkan sejumlah besar metadata dan jejaring sosial, yang mengarah ke konsep dengan sebutan "uberveillance" di mana orang-orang dipantau secara terus menerus.

"Sekarang kita memiliki 'jejak digital' yang ditinggalkan semua orang," katanya.

"Catatan panggilan telepon, apa yang dicari di internet, kartu kredit, bahkan data pada kartu elektronik kereta atau bus dapat digunakan untuk melacak pergerakan dan aktivitas Anda."

Apa selanjutnya?

Survei industri tahunan yang dilakukan oleh Biometrics Institute, yang dikenal sebagai 'Industry Trend Tracker', telah menyatakan teknologi pengenalan wajah kemungkinan akan menjadi tren biometrik yang meningkat dalam beberapa tahun ke depan.

Para responden survei merasa masalah privasi dan perlindungan data sebagai kendala terbesar, diikuti dengan pengetahuan yang buruk para pengambil keputusan, kesalahan informasi soal biometrik, serta penolakan dari pendukung privasi.

Komisi reformasi hukum Australia mengatakan sistem biometrik semakin banyak digunakan atau dipertimbangkan oleh banyak organisasi, termasuk program rehabilitisi narkoba, layanan pemesanan taksi, ATM dan perbankan online, serta akses masuk ke gedung.

Profesor Michael mengatakan pemerintah harus sangat berhati-hati dalam menerapkan sumber data baru yang melimpah ini di masa depan.

Menurutnya pemerintah sedang membangun kesepakatan antara pihaknya dengan sejumlah perusahaan untuk berupaya menghindari kecurangan, namun seringkali tidak tercapai dan potensi menyalahgunakan sangatlah luas.

"Apa yang kita lakukan dalam mencocokan dengan kumpulan data adalah seperti menemukan jarum di tumpukan jerami," katanya.

Dalam pernyataan Departemen Dalam Negeri disebutkan Pemerintah Australia sedang menjajaki pembuatan layanan verifikasi lewat pengenalan wajah untuk sektor swasta, namun upaya ini belum dimulai.

Disadur dari laporan aslinya dalam bahasa Inggris yang bisa dibaca disini.

Lihat Artikelnya di Australia Plus

Facial recognition: Feature creep may impose government's software in our lives, expert warns

It's known as 'The Capability' — government facial recognition software to match CCTV footage to passport photos. But new measures to give it access to drivers' licences have surveillance experts worried about what might come next.

Instant facial recognition software used for counter-terrorism could be used on the general public one day if the rules around the use of the software keep changing, a surveillance expert warns.

The ACT Government had this same concern with — though it has still signed on to the changes.

The territory's Attorney-General, Gordon Ramsay, said the ACT Government would continue negotiations on the biometric capability of the facial recognition software, known as The Capability, which matches faces from CCTV footage to passports — and with them, all of a person's associated data.

COAG has agreed to add drivers' licences to that system, and to speed up the week-long process, making The Capability instant.

But the ACT has asked for assurances that data will only be used outside of counter-terrorism when the Capability returns a perfect match.

It was the only jurisdiction that raised privacy concerns .

"One of the things that we would always be looking to is the access and the way that information can be used, they will be part of the ongoing negotiations," Mr Ramsay said.

'Before we know it…': worries over feature creep

But surveillance expert Professor Katina Michael pointed to an established trend of technology creeping up in scope and said The Capability would be no exception.

She expected the system to slide down a slippery slope of privacy erosion, eventually being used for petty crime, civil cases and a whole range of purposes unrelated to terrorism.

"It's a farce," she said.

"Before we know it'll be used for breath tests and speeding, it will be used to open a bank account … licences are our primary ID — so does that mean everywhere we've been using them for identity, all the clubs and pubs, will have access to it?

"Even car insurance — [people will think] 'we are using it for drivers' licences, maybe we should also use it for third-party compulsory insurance. And then we need it for health insurance'."

Your face 'may end up on some third-party selling list'

Ms Michael was equally concerned about systematic errors causing potential mistaken identities and leading to people being wrongly accused or suspected of crime.

"It's not going to take long for these systems to be hacked, no matter what security you have in place and once it's hacked, that's it — everyone's facial images will end up on some third-party selling list and possibly on the internet for accessibility."

"Yeah, people put photos on Facebook, but not in that kind of systematic, calculated way.

"Some Australian citizens are going to be completely freaked out."

Fergus Hanson, head of cyber policy at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, said Australians needed to think about where the "guard rails" around privacy should be.

"I think we can all agree that it's useful to use systems like this to track down terrorists or to track down murderers, [but] what happens when we start having more minor crimes being prosecuted and people arrested using this same technology?" Mr Hanson said.

"Would we be OK for example with the Government using that technology to track down someone who hadn't paid a parking fine?

"DNA testing, originally that was a very niche capability that developed, and now it's run of the mill technology that you would run for lots of different crime types."

Mr Hanson said the public needs to consider who ought to own personal data, and how it might be used in the future.

"You don't have to go very far back in history to appreciate why privacy is important, and the constraints that need to be there around states in terms of how they exercise their authority," he said.At the COAG National Security Summit, .

ACT Chief Minister Andrew Barr said "it is more perhaps in sorrow than in anger" that the heightened terrorism threats facing Australia had sparked the need for harsher measures.

"Nonetheless, all jurisdictions have signed up today and it reflects the need for a joined up and collective response to difficult issues," Mr Barr said.

"But to do so within the framework of a Human Rights Act that we have in the ACT has required us to work closely with the Commonwealth to achieve the outcome.

"And I want to acknowledge that that has been achieved, and that's an important thing for residents in the ACT."

Citation: Jake Evans and Clare Sibthorpe, October 5, 2017, "Facial recognition: Feature creep may impose government's software in our lives, expert warns", Australian Broadcasting Corporation News.

Agencies may access IDs

Government agencies could get approved access to part of the Commonwealth's newly proposed facial recognition program.

The Facial Verification Service, part of the federal government's new "Capability" program, would be accessible by departments such as the Department of Human Services or the Australian Taxation Office.

The system would be used to provide a one-for-one match from a person's existing photo with any other government-issued identities they may hold, rather than returning multiple potential matches.

The Attorney-General's Department said government agencies and private businesses would have to complete a privacy impact statement before given access.

"Organisations using the service would need to demonstrate their lawful basis to do so under the Privacy Act, and could only use the FVS where they gain a person's consent to use their images," a spokesman said.

Surveillance expert Professor Katina Michael of the University of Wollongong said access should only be granted on a case-by-case basis, concerned that Capability could be linked to a person's metadata or even tax file number.

"What I can't understand is it's open at all times indefinitely," Professor Michael said. "That is not professional. It's warrantless searching."

She also raised concerns about the private sector having access to the system.

"It's going to be bidirectional. This is a lovely symbiosis between government and industry. This is the only way that government can crawl their way into the data sets of Facebook and Google."

When originally launched in November, the FVS used photos captured by the Australian Border Force from passports or citizenship photos, and was only available to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade or the Australian Federal Police.

Earlier this month, the federal government announced it would establish the national facial recognition system drawing on issued identification from all Australian jurisdictions allowing FVS users to access state or territory databases.

The Capability now comprises three parts, the Document Verification Service, the FVS and the Facial Identification Service.

The FIS allows law enforcement to scan photos of unknown persons and match them with multiple government records.

"For example, it can be used to identify a suspected paedophile from child exploitation material, or to identify an armed offender from a still image taken from CCTV footage," a spokesman said. There were no current plans to expand access to the FIS.

But Professor Michael was concerned the FIS would eventually be opened up to other agencies and the private sector.

Finbar O'Mallon, October 15, 2017, "Agencies may access IDs", Canberra Times, p. 8.

Limits on use of facial recognition system

The ACT government has ruled out the possibility of Access Canberra using the federal government's proposed facial recognition technology to pursue unpaid fines.

Under a Council Of Australian Government agreement, Access Canberra - the territory's one-stop shop for government utilities, services and support - would be able to use the National Driver Licence Facial Recognition Solution or the "Capability".

According to the agreement, the ACT will pay the Commonwealth $20,000 a year to operate and maintain the system, and any costs related to integrating the ACT's database with the Capability would be the territory's responsibility.

ACT Policing would also have access to the technology.

The ACT government confirmed it had "no intention" of using the technology more broadly.

"The capacity for government agencies to use the Capability is still being finalised," a government spokesperson said. "The government has no plan to broaden Access Canberra's use of the system."

The government has ruled out using the system to verify people's identities, pursue parking infringements or any other responsibilities that fall to the services agency.

ACT Chief Minister Andrew Barr was the sole state or territory leader to raise privacy concerns over the system, which the government stressed would be necessary for counter-terrorism.

The ACT government said it would only provide one-for-one matches, where the system returns a single identical match to a searched face, rather than multiple possible matches from searches in the One Person One Licence System (OPOLS).

Surveillance expert Professor Katina Michael from the University of Wollongong said one-to-one matches would help prevent innocent Canberrans being inadvertently targeted in an investigation. A search that returned multiple possible matches, she said, could create false positives for investigators.

"You don't want fuzzy matches," Professor Michael said.

The agreement did not permanently rule out the ACT's database being used in OPOLS searches. It stated there would not be any participation in the OPOLS "at this stage".

Mr Barr said he had requested restrictions on the use of the Capability so as to meet the ACT's Human Rights Act.

Citation: Finbar O'Mallon, October 15, 2017, "Limits on use of facial recognition system", Canberra Times, p. 2.

Facial Recognition and Scope Creep in Australian Proposal

'Before we know it…': worries over feature creep

But surveillance expert Professor Katina Michael pointed to an established trend of technology creeping up in scope and said The Capability would be no exception.

She expected the system to slide down a slippery slope of privacy erosion, eventually being used for petty crime, civil cases and a whole range of purposes unrelated to terrorism.

"It's a farce," she said.

"Before we know it'll be used for breath tests and speeding, it will be used to open a bank account … licences are our primary ID — so does that mean everywhere we've been using them for identity, all the clubs and pubs, will have access to it?

"Even car insurance — [people will think] 'we are using it for drivers' licences, maybe we should also use it for third-party compulsory insurance. And then we need it for health insurance'."

Your face 'may end up on some third-party selling list'

Ms Michael was equally concerned about systematic errors causing potential mistaken identities and leading to people being wrongly accused or suspected of crime.

"It's not going to take long for these systems to be hacked, no matter what security you have in place and once it's hacked, that's it — everyone's facial images will end up on some third-party selling list and possibly on the internet for accessibility."

"Yeah, people put photos on Facebook, but not in that kind of systematic, calculated way.

"Some Australian citizens are going to be completely freaked out."

Original Source: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-10-05/facial-recognition-coag-privacy-concerns-about-the-capability/9017494

Citation: Jake Evans and Clare Sibthorpe, "Facial recognition: Feature creep may impose government's software in our lives, expert warns", ABC News, October 5, 2017. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-10-05/facial-recognition-coag-privacy-concerns-about-the-capability/9017494

Biometric Behavioural Analytics

– Professor Katina Michael – Professor at the School of Computing and Information Technology at University of Wollongong chats to Trevor Long and Nick Bennett on Talking Technology about facial recognition technology and whether it could distinguish between twins.

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Citation: Katina Michael speaks with Trevor Long and Nick Bennett, "Can twins fool facial recognition technology?", Talking Technology on Talking Lifestyle at 8.40pm-9.00pm, September 7, 2017.

Original source: https://omny.fm/shows/talking-technology/can-twins-fool-facial-recognition-technology

Biometric Borders on Radio New Zealand (The Panel)

The Panel with Niki Bezzant and Peter Elliott (Part 2) and Producer Julie Moffett. 4.44pm. 26/01/17

More here: 

http://www.radionz.co.nz/national/programmes/thepanel/audio/201830922/biometric-borders